Skip to main content

Full text of "English derived from Hebrew"

See other formats


Google 



This is a digital copy of a book that was preserved for generations on library shelves before it was carefully scanned by Google as part of a project 

to make the world's books discoverable online. 

It has survived long enough for the copyright to expire and the book to enter the public domain. A public domain book is one that was never subject 

to copyright or whose legal copyright term has expired. Whether a book is in the public domain may vary country to country. Public domain books 

are our gateways to the past, representing a wealth of history, culture and knowledge that's often difficult to discover. 

Marks, notations and other maiginalia present in the original volume will appear in this file - a reminder of this book's long journey from the 

publisher to a library and finally to you. 

Usage guidelines 

Google is proud to partner with libraries to digitize public domain materials and make them widely accessible. Public domain books belong to the 
public and we are merely their custodians. Nevertheless, this work is expensive, so in order to keep providing tliis resource, we liave taken steps to 
prevent abuse by commercial parties, including placing technical restrictions on automated querying. 
We also ask that you: 

+ Make non-commercial use of the files We designed Google Book Search for use by individuals, and we request that you use these files for 
personal, non-commercial purposes. 

+ Refrain fivm automated querying Do not send automated queries of any sort to Google's system: If you are conducting research on machine 
translation, optical character recognition or other areas where access to a large amount of text is helpful, please contact us. We encourage the 
use of public domain materials for these purposes and may be able to help. 

+ Maintain attributionTht GoogXt "watermark" you see on each file is essential for in forming people about this project and helping them find 
additional materials through Google Book Search. Please do not remove it. 

+ Keep it legal Whatever your use, remember that you are responsible for ensuring that what you are doing is legal. Do not assume that just 
because we believe a book is in the public domain for users in the United States, that the work is also in the public domain for users in other 
countries. Whether a book is still in copyright varies from country to country, and we can't offer guidance on whether any specific use of 
any specific book is allowed. Please do not assume that a book's appearance in Google Book Search means it can be used in any manner 
anywhere in the world. Copyright infringement liabili^ can be quite severe. 

About Google Book Search 

Google's mission is to organize the world's information and to make it universally accessible and useful. Google Book Search helps readers 
discover the world's books while helping authors and publishers reach new audiences. You can search through the full text of this book on the web 

at |http: //books .google .com/I 



600083709X 



(SnglidI) itemed from §ebretu ; 



WITH 



GLANCES AT GREEK AND LATIN 



BY 



E. GOVETT. 






LONDON: 
S. W. PARTEIDGE AND CO., PATERNOSTER ROW. 

NORWICH: PLETCHEB AND .SON. 
MDCCCLXIX. 



So/. ^^ 'So 



INDEX 



CHAP. 












PAQK 


I. 


Beasts, Birds, Fish, Insects . . .1 


II. 


Trees, Herbs, Vegetables, Fruits 






10 


III. 


Dwellings of Men 






18 


IV. 


Great Objects of Nature 








28 


V. 


Members of the Body 








32 


VI. 


Kinds of Men 








35 


VII. 


Dress, Phrases 










36 


VIII. 


The Arts 










39 


IX. 


Metals 










. 41 


X. 


Numerals 










43 


XT. 


Geography 










. 45 


XII. 


Grammar 










47 


XIII. 


Mythology 










56 


XIV. 


Prolific Roots 










60 


XV. 


Difficulties solved 










61 


XV I. 


Crucial Instances 










. 63 


XVII. 


Confusion 






1 




. 69 


XVIII. 


English Equivalents < 


3f Hebi 


•ew Let 

• 


ters 




72 



INDEX. 



CHAP. 

XIX. 

XX. 

XXI. 

XXII. 

XXIII. 

XXIV. 

XXY. 

XXVI. 

XXVII. 

XXVIII. 

XXIX. 

XXX. 



Omitted Radicals 

Transpositions 

N. Internal 

B. Internal 

S. Initial 

Interchange of L and B 

N. Initial 

Change of S into T . 

The Digamma 

Change of ZH into T 

Hebrew Equivalents of English Letters 

Miscellaneoas Concluding Observations 



PAGE 

104 

110 

116 

118 

120 

122 

121 

12o 

128 

130 

132 

133 



THE ENGLISH LANGUAGE 



DEEIVED FROM THE HEBREW. 



CHAPTER L 



Professor Max Muller, in his lectures on language, having 
shown that several of our common English words are derived 
from the Sanscrit, it struck me to inquire, What would 
be the result of tracing the obligations of the English lan- 
guage to the Hebrew ? And, having gone into this matter to 
some extent, I now believe that English is derived from the 
Hebrew, 

Dean Alford supposes that the Celtic, Hebrew, Arabic, 
Persian, and Spanish jointly contribute some five per cent. 
of words to our native tongue. As the result of my inquiry, 
I should be inclined to say that there are not five per 
cent of Saxon words which cannot be traced to Hebrew. 
I wish, however, not to theorize, but to present the reader 
with examples, from which he can deduce his own conclu- 
sions. 

In this first part I do not write for the learned; being 
assured that the question can be easily understood, and will 
prove interesting to every English reader. Hence I give not 
the Hebrew letters, but the correspondent Eoman ones. 

section l 

I propose in this chapter to give specimens of the deriva- 
tion of our names of Animals from the sacred language. 

B 



^ THE ENGLISH LANGUAGE 

What is the Hebrew name for the Hare? AENBiT.** 
Now may not these letters at once hint to ns, whence our 
name of an allied animal is derived ? Eeverse the order of 
the A and the E, and you have EANBIT, whence our word 
RABBIT evidently comes. 

What is the Hebrew for the terrible serpent, deceiver of 
our race ? NaHHaS.* Change the last letter to the foremost 
place, and you have our SNAKe. Hence too, by A prefixed, 
we get the Latin Anguis^ and the Greek EchiSy the letter N 
being dropped, as it is very often in Hebrew. If the Scrip- 
ture be true, we might expect this word to be retained ; and 
so it is. The Greek word for the viper is Asfpis, whence our 
word Asp, It comes from the Hebrew ZP'A^ transposed; 
which also signifies a viper. 

Whence comes the word Boa, familiar to us as the name 
of the dejtroying Boa Constrictor? From the Hebrew 
AP'O,* which means a viper. These letters transposed make 
P'OA ; whence Boa, The letters B, P, and F, are perpetually 
interchanged in their passage from one language to another. 
From the same Hebrew word comes our English "Eft," a 
small creature of the lizard kind. And probably the Latin 
ViPERA comes from the same root ; the F or V being prefixed 
to the commencing vowel. The Adder proceeds from 'ATaE,* 
" to encircle/' and is derived from its coiling itseK into a series 
of circles. 

The Lion in Hebrew is LeBIAW.^ The B is dropped in 
English, Latin, and Greek. And we have Leo in I^tin. 
Perhaps we might say that the B is transferred to the end, 
and becomes N". 

Whence comes our English word Kitten ? 7 From the 
Hebrew QuiToN, which signifies " a little one!^ That which 
the Hebrews applied generally, we have, singularly enough, 
appropriated to the young of the cat alone. 

* I give the letters simply; not according to the Masoretic 
pointing ; adding in smaller type the vowels supplied. 

'naan«. *B'n3. ';;qv- *i7-3»- *iDi;. "s^a"?. ']Dp. 



DEBITED FKOM THE HEBREW. 8 

Whence is derived our word Camel ? From the Hebrew 
GeMeL/ which signifies the same animal Here the G of 
the Hebrew becomes changed into the C or K of the English, 
Latin, and Greek. 

What is the derivation of the word Elephant ? It comes 
from the Hebrew ELePH,* which means an ox. But how Is 
an elephant like an ox? I answer, The termination "ant'* 
carries with it, most probably, the word which denoted the 
difference between it and the common ox. We natumlly, on 
seeing a new creature, associate it with one familiar to us. 
Some of the South Sea Islanders, as Williams has informed 
us, had never beheld a European, or the animals with which 
we are familiar. Hence, as he observes, " On seeing the 
goats, they called to their companions to come and look at 
the wonderful Mrds with great teeth upon their heads." So 
with us, "the cock of the woods" and "the wood-cock" are 
very different birds from the common barn-door cock. This 
same Hebrew word was the origin of the Greek Elaphos, * a 
stag.' And it is very remarkable that we find the same com- 
bination of "ant," and "elaph" in the antelopk I am not 
clear what is the meaning of " ant." 

The Hebrew SHOOE, and the Chaldee TOOE signify an 
ox ; whence we obtain our English steer,^ The name of the 
Jerboa arises from the Hebrew ZHeB'O,* which means a 
hyena. The Chaldee adds the R 

Our word Badger is derived from the Hebrew ' ACBaE,« 
which means a mouse. By transposition we have BACaE, 
whence " Badger" easily springs. 

Whence have we the word Giraffe ? ® From the Hebrew 
*GaEaPH, which signifies " the neckf and every one who has 
seen that creature, knows that its great peculiarity is the 
enormous elongation of its neck. 

Whence are derived our words Goat and Kid ? From two 
different pronunciations of the Hebrew GiDI,^ which signifies 
that animal in the sacred tongue. Our expression "the 

^to '«i^s. 'mtj^. ^i!2)i' ^33;;. «p)i;;. ^nj. 



4 THS ENGLISH LANGUAGE 

giddy heights" perhaps springs from the remembrance of the 
lofty pinnacles of rock to which these creatures climb. The 
heights to which the mountain goats climb, produce in us the 
sensation of '* giddiness." 

Whence is derived the word Zebra ? From the Hebrew 
ZeBI/ which signifies a roe-buck. The "E" in the midst, 
and the "A" at the end come from the Chaldee, which fre- 
quently adds these letters. Indeed, the E occurs so often in 
English, where it is not found in the Hebrew, as to make it 
most probable that the Hebrew came to us through the 
Chaldee. 

The Doe clearly is traceable to the TOA,^ or antelope. 

n. 

But let us now turn to some examples of Birds. 

We have two names of birds spelt differently, but of the 
same radical base. Coot and Kite, These are ofif-shoots, I 
doubt not, from the Hebrew QuAT.3 (I retain the English 
letter Q to represent the Hebrew Koph or Quoph, though I 
suppose it was generally pronounced K.) Probably also our 
Cat is derived therefrom, though whence the confusion arose, 
it would be diflicult to determine, without the history of Gen. 
XL The meaning of the ^ebrew word is " the pelican,'' or 
cormorant 

The Hebrew speaks of a bird called INSOR* This is 
supposed to be a water-fowl of some kind. The Septuagint 
renders the word, ibis : our translators, " the great owL" But 
whatever its original signification, it is the parent of our word 
Snipe, a bird fond of marshy places. This is an instance of 
the Saxon love of brevity. Two syllables in the Hebrew are 
contracted into one in English. This principle appears often. 

Whence is derived our English Dove ? From the Hebrew 
DOoB ;5 which signifies to murmur. The B was frequently 
pronounced V. Sometimes also it was changed into P and 
PH, as I have noted above. 

' ^3V. ' Sin. ' n»ip. ♦ p]ijy3\ * an. 



DEBITED FBOM THE HEBRESW. 5 

The Sparbow is found in most parts of the old world. 
What is its Hebrew name? ZaPPOR* The Saxon word 
has manifestly sprung from this. The Z and P combine, the 
vowel is inserted after them, and the long 0, which in 
Hebrew precedes the E, is set last : ' Sparrow* The Latm 
name is another variation of the same letters: Passer. 
Hence too the Greek Peristera, ' a dove.* 

Whence comes the name Pelican? From the Hebrew 
PeLeG,^ which signifies a stream or channel. It indicates, 
then, a water-bird : and it is well known, the Pelican obtains 
its food from the water. 

Whence is our word Eaven derived ? From the Hebrew 
*AEaB.' (I denote the Hebrew letter Ayin by an A or E or 
with a comma, thus : 'A, *E, or '0.) Transpose the two first 
letters, and add an N, which addition at the close is common 
in Hebrew, and you have Eaven. Thence, too, our Eobin. 

The Crow (or Eook) takes his name from his perpetual 
" Caw-caw." His appellation is derived from the Hebrew 
QEAW,* with a broad A, which means to call. The name 
"Eook*' comes from the same letters transposed. Hence 
also come our words "cry," and " crew" — a number of men 
whose names are called over, and who must answer to the 
call. A bird's ''craw" comes from the Hebrew GeEaH, 
which signifies " the cvd/* 

We may often hear at nightfall, especially in the spring, a 
harsh, reedy call of a single note, proceeding from the 
midst of the com. This cry is uttered by the com-CRAiK. 
Its name is derived from the Hebrew HEaiQ,^ which means 
the unpleasant sound produced by grinding or gnashing 
the teeth. Now, as the genius of our language wUl not 
admit of "H" immediately preceding "E," the H is turned 
into its sister letter C, and it becomes the parent of words 
descriptive of unpleasant sounds, as creak, croak. This is 
also the origin of the Greek word for "crow" — Korax. 
Hence Keerux, a herald. 



6 THE ENGLISH LANGUAGE 

The HA^^'^ was formerly called Hafoc by the Saxons. It 
is still in Danish Havik ; in German Hahicht It derives its 
name from the Hebrew HaFoC,* which means " the Destroyer.^* 
We still retain the word " havoc," as meaning destruction. 

AVhence do we get our Daw ? From DAH,* which proba- 
bly means a kite. Our Chotcgk from SeHOUPH, a 'sea-gulL'* 

What shall we say is the origin of our word Egret ? It 
comes from the word 'EGOET,* a crane. The word Crane is 
derived from the Hebrew GaEaN,5 a throat. It is related of 
one of the epicures a.mong the ancients, that, believing the 
throat to be the organ of taste, he wished his throat were as 
long as a crane's. From this word is derived the Greek 
Geranos, and .the Latin Grvs; each of which signifies "the 
crane." 

Our word Gull comes from GTJL,^ to move in a circuit : 
which is quite characteristic of the sea-gull. The name of 
the Condor comes from the Hebrew QoDoR,^ which means 
to be dark ; the N being inserted by way of strengthening the 
root. From the same base is derived the brook Kedron. 

The name Toucan is probably obtained from the Hebrew 
TooQuaN,® to be straight ; from the remarkably long bill of 
the bird. 

Hebrew is traceable in the Latin and Greek names also. The 
Latin name of the Nightingale is Luscinia, which is derived from 
the Hebrew LuSHeN,^ the tongue. Its melodious voice could 
but give it its distinguishing title — ' the bird with the tongue 
of melody.' So the Ass is in Latin A sinus, which is derived 
from the Hebrew AZiN,*® an ear. Its long ears gave it the 
name of ' the beast with the prominent ears! 

The Greeks called the Swallow, Chelidon, This comes 
from the Hebrew HheLID,* which signifies " transient!' It 
took its name as being " the bird of passage." Our word 
Swallow comes from the Hebrew SaLO,^ which we translate 



' IQH. 


' nx"T. 


»BjnB>. 


* "iW- ' PJ- 


•■pij. 


' -lip. 


MPn. 


9]tt6. 


"• iT». ' iin 


' ibti'. 



DERTVED FBOM THE HEBREW. 7 

^' quail" in the history of Israel in the wilderness ; but which 
Forster has shown to mean a red-legged goose. 

The Greek Ados signifies an eagle. It takes its origin 
from the Hebrew ' AiT,* which means, a bird or beast of'prey. 
The Latin Aquila, which also signifies an eagle, comes from 
the Hebrew AKuL,^ a devourer. Our Osprey derives from 
PeEoS, a kind of eagle. 

IIL 

Shall we look to some specimens among the fishes? 
"Whence do we obtain the word Fisu ? From the Hebrew 
NePHeSH,^ which generally signifies a liviiu/ creature ; but 
fishes are the first to which it is applied : Gen. i. 21. But 
we, after dropping the first letter N", (which is a very unstable 
one in that language), have appropriated it to one class of 
animals in the sea. Thence, too, spring the Latin Piscis, and 
the French Foisson, Hence also probably our Press, 

What is the Hebrew for Scorpion ? ' AQEaB.* ' But we 
have no scorpions ! How then should that name be natural- 
ized among us ? ' It is true that we have no scorpions ; and 
let us be thankful for it ! But when our ancestors travelled 
from the east to our shores, they saw a creature in the sea 
possessed of great claws, moving about like a scorpion ; and 
they cried, "'Acrab! *Acrab!" The first A was mistaken 
for the English indefinite article ; and our love of monosylla- 
bles soon cut it short into crab. This is also the parent of 
the Greek and Latin Scorpio, The S is added by the Chal- 
dee. The ' A and Q change places, and become " Sco." The 
B becomes a P, and so we have Scorpio. Hence also the 
Latin Crabro, ' a hornet.' The Latin word for Crab, Cancer, 
(the second C being hard,) springs from the Hebrew CaCaR,* 
a circle, with the strengthening K The fish's body is 
circular. 

The Whelk is a shell-fish which sticks to the rocks. It 
comes from the Hebrew ' ELQ,^ to adhere. The Elk comes 

^D^;f. '^3«. 'tTM. ^lyU' *-|22. '0i;. 



8 THE ENGLISH LANGUAGE ' 

from this root. Probably too our Leech is derived from the 
same root by transposition. 

The Hebrew HaDDoQ* signifies a thorn. The name 
probably originally signified some fish with a thorny back. 
But the English Haddock cleariy derives thence its name. 

Our Perch takes its name, I think, from the Hebrew 
PeKaHH,^ which signifies to break out, to shoot out ; and it 
refers probably to its power of erecting the prickles on its 
back. 

IV. 

Shall we now take a glance at insects ? The spider in 
Hebrew is ' ECVIS.s With the Chaldee E added, it becomes 
the French Ecrevisse ; which we have turned into CEAY- 
FISH.* Here is a curious change of meaning. 

The Wasp takes its name from its sting. The Hebrew 
root is * AZB,4 the meaning of which is *'pain.^' The peculiar 
Hebrew letter with which it begins, is often expressed in 
English by an initial W, as we have seen above in the case 
of Whelk. Hence, too, the Latin Vespa, ' a wasp.' 

The Flea in Hebrew is FE'AS.* But philologists are 
agreed, that the "L" and "E" are constantly interchanged. 
A lisping pronunciation of "E" makes "L." The "S" was 
dropped as being in our language a sign of the pluraL 
Thence we have Flea. 

There is a singular worm which surrounds itself with stones 
and sticks, well known to anglers, and called the Caddis- 
worm. This name is derived from the Hebrew QuaDeSH,^ 
which signifies " Holy." Jerusalem in our day is called * El 
KuDS, *'the Holy!' From this I should gather, that the 
creature was once regarded as holy. Nor would it be difficult 
to guess whence its title was derived. 



* Max Mailer noticed the two cognate words in French and 
English, but not its Hebrew origin. 



DERIVED FROM THE HEBREW. 9 

The English word Beetle may be derived from the Hebrew 
FLaT/ by transposition. It is the original of our words 
FLAT ; PLATE ; FLEET ; FLOAT ; FLIT ; PETAL ; and others. 

The word Emmet takes its origin from the Hebrew ' EMiH,^ 
**to associate together,'* "a people" — owing to the creature's 
social propensities. 

The English Moth is derived from the Hebrew M'OT,' 
''little," "small" — ^whence also our "mote," and "mite." 

The word Worm springs, I believe, from the Hebrew 
'OEM,* " to he naked" "to be slippery" Here again the 
peculiar letter with which the Hebrew word begins, is ex- 
pressed in English by " W." Hence too the Latin Vermis 
and the Greek Helmins. 

The destructive Locust takes its name from the Hebrew 
LoQueSH,^ " to plnck/* " to consume." 

The Gnat takes its name from NaD,6 " tofiy'* 

^£0^2. *nqj;. 'K);/d. ^du;. 't^p^- 'i3- 



10 THE ENGLISH LANGUAGE 



CHAPTEE 11. 

SECTION L — ^VEGETABLES. 

I am now to give instances in which our names for 
members of the vegetable kingdom are derived from the 
Hebrew. Let us notice first the word Shrub, which is 
derived from the Hebrew ZhRuB/ signifying to be straitened ; 
the Shrub being smaller than the tree. 

The Latin word for Leaf is Folium ; the Greek, Fullon ; 
the French, Feuille, We have ourselves adopted the word 
Tre-FOIL, or " the three-leaved plant." This word is derived 
from the Hebrew 'OLI.2 The Hebrew letter Oin QJ) is 
very peculiar, and, when transferred into other languages, 
often takes before it what grammarians call *' the digamma," 
or F, in place of aspiration. This, then, gives us the Latin 
Folium, together with the Greek and French forms. Leaf is 
derived from the same letters transposed — ^Foil, Leaf From 
the same root we may conclude that the word Loaf arises. 
The bread made in early times, and in eastern lands, was in the 
form of a broad thin cake, like Scotch oatmeal cakes. These 
cakes were stuck against the side of the oven, and so baked. 
From their thin leaf-like form came the word Loaf This 
gives us also, I believe, the derivation of the word Bread. It 
comes from Broad, In German, the word Brod signifies both 
Loaf and Bread. 

The botanic word Frond, taken from the Latin, is derived 
from the Hebrew FEoD,' to spread ; N being added, as fre- 
quently is the case, to strengthen the root. 

The English Berry has its origin in the Hebrew PeEi,* 
which means "Fruit in general." Our word fruit, in the 
French represented by the same letters, in Spanish Fruto; 
in the Italian, Frutto, is derived, through the Latin Fructus, 
from the Hebrew FEuCH,* which means " to bud or blossom." 
The Greek Opora is evidently the offspring of the first of the 



) 



DEBITED FBOM THE HEBBEW. 11 

two words. It signifies " treefrmU^^ as pears, apples, grapes, 
&c. Observe the " " at the commencement ; a not un- 
common addition in Greek. 

Our word Branch takes its rise from BRaCH,* " to reach 
across — a har, a cross beam": N being added, as in former 
instances, to strengthen the root. Bark is derived from 
BOOK,« '' to roll rovmdr The R is added by the Chaldee. 
Hence comes our Booh, which was formerly a roll or scrolL 
Sap owes its origin to the Hebrew ZaB,^ "to flow" ; Oum to 
the Hebrew GaM,* "to join together." Hence the Greek 
* Qamosl marriage. 

The old English Wort ; in German, Wurz ; in Swedish, Ort ; 
in French, Ve/rt, verd ; in Latin, Viridis, is derived from the 
Hebrew YE0K,6 "to be green/' The first letter here is 
generally rendered into English by " W." Then the vowel 
" " is taken out of its place in order to follow the " W." 
Here is another example of a word of two syllables in 
Hebrew being shori;ened into one in English. The term 
"wort" is familiar to botanists, as forming an association 
with many names of plants. Star-i(;or<, mug-i^or^, spleen-t^w^. 
The final K has apparently become T in English, to distinguish 
it from wor^. 

SECTION II. — ^TREES. 

Let us now turn to the names of Trees. 

The Ash with us signifies a special kind of tree. In Hebrew, 
'AZH^ is the general name for Tree, The word Elm, as denoting 
a kind of tree, is widely spread. The Dutch has Olm ; the 
German, Ulnu\ the Swedish, Alm\ the Danish, Alm\ the 
Spanish, Olmo ; the Russian, Tlma or Ilina ; the Latin Ulmiis. 
Whence are all these names derived? From the Hebrew, 
ALoN,^ an oak. 

The common people sometimes pronounce the English word 
Ellum, which is nearer to the Hebrew than our more 
civilized pronunciation. The change of N into M is common 



12 THE ENGLIBH LANGUAGE 

enougL It furnishes another example of a Hebrew word 
of two syllables being shortened into one. From the same 
root comes the Latin ALNus, the alder. The teil tree is 
derivable from ASHeL,' Arabic ATeL, a species of tamarisk. 

An ash or pine tree is in Hebrew AEN.^ The Masoretic 
pronunciation is Oren. The mountain-ash in Latin was 
Ornvs. The Scotch have transposed the letters, and call the 
tree Rowan or Roan, Our Cypress, in Latin Cupressus, in 
Greek, Kyoo'parissos, is evidently the progeny of the Hebrew 
GOPHeE,'^ from the wood of which Noah's ark was made. 

Our Aspen, the under side of whose leaves is white, takes 
its name from the Hebrew SEEBaH,* which signifies " hoary." 
The internal vowel is transferred to the commencement ; and, 
as all allow, the B and P are letters closely related. The 
thorny Sloe of our hedges owes its name to the Hebrew SLONe,* 
which means " a thorn." 

The common Willow is a curious example of the trans- 
position of letters. The Willow in Hebrew is 'OEiV.^ We 
have taken the letters in reverse, and out of ViEO have 
formed Willow ; the change of V into W, and of E into L, 
being quite according to rule. The Holly takes its name from 
its prickly leaves; that which "pierces" being in Hebrew 
HoLLeL^ 

Our word Juniper, in Latin Junipencs, Italian, Oinepro, 
comes from the Hebrew JuPeE,^ which signifies " nails and 
sharp points." Its foliage is very sharp pointed, as most are 
aware. The N is added here to strengthen the root, as in 
many other cases. The additional letter produces a third 
syllable, for euphony's sake. The Fir is called BEuSH® in 
the sacred tongue. Hence, also, our FUEZE; and the Z 
being dropped, our Fir ; and I think also our Bokage. 

Cedar might by some be traced to the Hebrew QeDaE, 
"dark"; as if its title were derived from its foliage. But 
methinks it more truly owes its name to the root QueTaE,'® 

'h\if\!<' *p«- '"i^J- *nn^ty- 
'\bD' ^y^V' '^^n. ^DV. ^tma ^ntop. 



DERIVED FROM THE HEBREW. 18 

"perfume/* owing to the fragrance of its wood. Hence is 
derived the Citron, From this word comes the wine of 
the heathen gods, Nectar " the perfumed." Hence also our 
Nectarine, the " fruit of fragrance." 

Wlieuce comes our Mistletoe ? The derivation I propose is 
rather startling, as it would seem to account for tlie freedoms 
to which it gives licence at Christmas time. Certainly 
MaSL-TOH > in Hebrew means " Lord of misrule." 

SECTION in. — PLANTS. 

Let us now turn to some Plants. Crocus is clearly from 
the Hebrew CEoCuM,^ which iuQicates the herb Saffron ; one 
of the crocus tribe. Camphire or Camphor is from CaFooE,' the 
henna of the East : whence also is derived the Greek Kyoopros, 
The M is a complementary letter, which is added by several 
languages before P and F ; of which we shall see other exam- 
ples. Thence also our Caper plant ; and, as I suppose, our Clover, 

The herb Cummin and the spice Cinnamon are simply 

transferred into other languages from the Hebrew. The word 

Cans has a very wide field of meaning. It is nearly the 

same in most languages. In Hebrew, Chaldee, Syriac, and 

Arabic, QaNNeH,* it becomes in Latin and Greek Canna; 

French, Canne; Welsh, Caum; Spanish, Cana; Portuguese, 

Cana ; Italian, Canna ; Armenian, Canen. The Hebrew for 

Plant is ]SreTt'0,5 whence our Nettle, 

Rush takes its name from the Hebrew E'OSH,^ to tremble 

* 

Our Reed, in Saxon H'reod, is derived from HhEaD,^ to tremble. 
From the same root springs the Latin Arundo, which also 
means " a reed" Our Grass is clearly derivable from GaZE,® 
" to cut off." Hence it was originally applied to Aay. The 
two last letters are transposed. From the same source comes 
our Cress. The Qorse, or Furze, arises, as we may see, from 
another root.9 

•j/Dj. ••vwn. 'inn. '"itj. 't^nj. 



14 THE ENGLISH LANGUAGE 

Our English Mallow and Mullein take their rise from the 
root MaLooHH,^ which, in Job xxx, 4, is translated mallow. 
The Latins, Spaniards, and Italians call the plant malva ; the 
Greeks made the last letter of the Hebrew root hard, and 
called it Mallachee, The harsh-tasted Rii£ derives its name 
from the root E'0,2 which signifies " evU." By the Latins 
and Italians it was called Ruta, and its name in many other 
languages is nearly the same. 

Our Rose, in Latin, Italian, and Spanish, Rosa — ^repeated 
in nearly the same sound through most languages — whence 
comes its name ? From the Hebrew EoZaH,3 " to give plea- 
sure, beautiful." ' 

In Eden God threatened — " Thorns also and thistles shall it 
[the ground] bring forth to thee " ; and the words used are in 
Hebrew QooZ * and DaRDaRs Do not these words repro- 
duce themselves in English as Coicch and Dodder ? Gotbch- 
grass is a weed well known to the farmer as extremely 
troublesome. And Dodder is a parasitical creeper, very de- 
structive to hops, flax, and clover, with other plants. 

The flower Balsam derives its name from the Hebrew 
BaSaM,* which signifies "to smell aromatically." The 
strengthening L was added by the Greeks and Romans. 
In their language it signified the fragrant resin of the Balsam 
tree. Hence also our Spice and Mace. 

Whence comes the word Hyssop — in Latin, Hyssopus, in 
Greek, Hyoossopus ? FromJ, the Hebrew EZOB,^ which signi- 
fies the caper plant In Arabic it is named Asuf, 

SECTION rv. — VEGETABLES. 

Shall we look at some of the names of our Vegetables ? 
Our Squash springs from the root QuaSHA,^ a Cucumber, 
Our Cucumber and the Latin Cuciimis from the Hebrew 

mil. «Dti^a 'mm. «K2^p. 



DERIVED FROM THE HEBREW. 15 

KIKalON,! a Oourd, Hence, with E interposed by the 
Chaldee, comes our Oherkin. The Latin Gucurbita clearly 
springs from two Hebrew words, CiCuE, "round," and 
ABTeHH,^ a gourd or melon. From the first of these roots 
we get the Latin Cicer, a vetch. 

The English Pwmpkin is clearly traceable to the Hebrew 
PuQu'O,' " a wild gourd." The M and P are complementary 
letters. 

The Gahbage, with its many-leaved heart, takes its name 
from QaBaZH,* " to gather together " — ' a heap.' The Leek 
is derived from LeHH,^ *' green," "succulent." The Onion 
derives its name from its resemblance, when cut through, to 
the eye ; which is in Hebrew OIK® 

The Hop, Ivy, and Fea appear to be derived from different 
pronunciations of the root 'OPA and 'OPI,^ "to grow 
luxuriantly. 

Whence are derived our wojds Turnip and Parsnip 1 
Their last syllable speaks a common source. The first 
springs from the Hebrew DooR, "to be round," and KiB,® 
" a plant." The second from PaRS,9 " a horse," It is " the 
horse-wort" So we apply the terms, ' JTorse-chesnut,' and 
* jfforse-radish.' 

We read in Scripture of the Algum,^^ as the wood of a very 
precious tree. The root seems clearly to reappear in the 
Latin Legumen, and the French and English Legume, From 
this, I believe, comes our Mahogany, 

The Cereals, whence man derives his principal food, take 
their origin from the same source. Whence comes the English 
Wheat — the Saxon Hwoste; the Gothic Hunt; the German 
Weitzen ; the Swedish Hvete ; the Danish Hvede ; the Dutch 
Weit ? Ma^jc Muller says, from the root white. But will that 
stand comparison with the Hebrew HHeTaH,^ which signifies 
Wheat ? This origin Welster gives it in his dictionary ; while 

' ]rpp. * HDD. nD3K. » ;;pD. * \'yp. ' rh- 
'Tj;. '^iij;. nn 3^j. ^ana- '°dj*7. sncon. 



16 THE ENGLISH LANGUAGE 

Parkhurst had previously traced it to this root. Very 
remarkable it is, in such connexion to see that in the old 
Saxon the H preceded the W ; and so also in several of the 
allied languages. 

What is the origin of the word Rye ? I should say, the 
Hebrew R'OH,* "fodder." Whence come our words Corn 
and Orain ? From the Hebrew QeEN,* a horn. Our word 
Rice has its compeers in the French, Riz; Italian, Riss; 
Spanish and Portuguese, Arroz; German, Reiz or Reiss; 
Dutch, Ryst ; Danish, Ris ; Latin and Greek, Oryza. Do 
not all these spring from the Hebrew EAS,' which means a 
head ? Its ear greatly resembles that of barley. 

The Hebrew for Lentiles is 'ODS.'* Thence are derived our 
English Oats ; and with the V prefixed to Oin QJ) the word 
Vetch. The Hebrew for Barley is SH'OR, ^ whence springs, 
by the Chaldee substitute of T for S, our word TAEE. What 
is peculiar in the Barley ? Xts drooping head. If we turn its 
letters into Hebrew, it becomes ' Weary corn ' — BaR-LaeH \^ 
while Maize or Indian corn, the strongest in stem of all the 
Cereals, takes its name from MAiZ,^ " to be strong." Whence 
comes our word Farina ? From the Latin Far^ which signi- 
fies "all corn which is made into bread." In Greek the 
answering word is Pyooros. Whence are both derived? 
From the Hebrew BaR,^ which signifies Corn. The Latin 
Hordeum, ' barley,' is derived from HoRD, ' to tremble.' 

SECTION V. — FRUITS. 

Shall we take a glance at the names of some of our 
Fruits ? Whence comes our word Fig — with its cognates in 
Latin, Ficus, Italian, Fico; Spanish, Figo; French, Figue; 
German, Feige; Dutch, Vygl From the Hebrew FaG,^ a 
"Fig:" Cant. ii. 13. The Pomegranate in Hebrew is 
RIMMON ; *® hence springs our Lenwn ; and by transposition, 

snj/T ^Y\^^ 'ti^«-i. "tyTi;- nj;ty. 



\ 



DERrVED FROM THE HEBREW. 17 

Melon, Our Almond seems to be derived from 'AEMON,* 
the plane-tree. 

In Hebrew the word for Grape may be written *GNaBe.« 
From these letters Gh^ape would easily spring. The first letter 
in the Hebrew word is Oin (jf), that singular one, which is 
sometimes written with a G, as in 'Gaza/ ' Gomorrah/ Wkence 
do we obtain the word Raisin, which in French and Irish is 
spelt in the same way ; in Dutch, Razj/n ; in German, Rosine ? 
Does it not clearly take its origin from the Hebrew 
HHEaZiN",' which means a "kernel*'? A cluster of grapes 
is in Greek BOTE-us; in Hebrew PEoT.* Here are the 
same consonants transposed. 

Whence comes our word Pea^h ? If I mistake not, from 
NePeCH,^ a citron. Here the commencing N is lost ; that 
being, as we have observed, the most unstable letter of the 
Hebrew alphabet. The Tamarisk and Tamarind evidently 
derive their two first syllables from the Hebrew TaMaE,® a 
palm. The last syllable of Tamarisk is probably derived 
from SaHH,7 '* to be low." The " low palml' as distinguished 
from the lofty tree properly called, the palm. The Tamarind 
would be the Indian Palm. 

The Hebrew for Nut is BuTK® We seem to have taken 
our word from this, omitting the first letter, and transposing 
the two last. We generally regard our word Raspberry as 
derived from " rasp," a species of file, because of the rough- 
ness of the fruit. So Webster gives it. But may it not be 
taken from the Hebrew EaSP,9 " a red-hot coal " ? Certainly 
the colour of the ripe fruit greatly countenances the idea. 
Still, if it take its name from the file-like instrument, that 
also springs by transposition from the Hebrew ZaEP,*^ to 
purify. 

'])pii!' ^^iif' '])nn '•£0-13. 

'HM- ^"iDD. ''nty. ']toa ^»ian. *°^"iv. 



D 



18 THE ENGLISH LANGUAGE 



CHAPTER III. 

THE DWELLINGS OF MEN. 

In the present chapter I exhibit some of the words 
belonging to the Dwellings of Men and their surround- 
ings, and show how they spring from the Hebrew. 

Let us then proceed to a farmhouse, and look first at the 
exterior. Here are the outhouses; the Stalks for horses: 
STABL,* a dwelling. The Zain, which is the first letter, is 
rendered into English and other languages in several ways. 
From it comes our word Stall, and also Dwell. From it is 
derived the Latin Templum, a temple, by the Chaldaic change 
of Z into D ; whence the Latins change it to T. 

Here are BooTHS for the smaller Cattle. Booth is our ren- 
dering of the Hebrew BEETH,« " a house.*' Hence our Berth 
on board ship. Cattle,^ traced to its origin, would signify 
"Creatures kept to be slain": QaTtLe signifying to slay. 
Thence also our word kill, the middle letter being dropped. 

The cattle pens are wattled : Hebrew HeTtL,* " to bind, to 
bandage,'* whence come our words swaddle and huddle. 
The Herd (Hebrew * HeDE)5 is in the field : the field is in 
stubble. Whence comes this word? from TeBeN, 'straw'? 
S is added by the Chaldee. Here is the sty for the hogs. The 
Hebrew gives us now STOOH,^ " a corner, granary, or store- 
house'* The Hog takes its name from HOGaH,^ " to growl, 
to mtUterJ' Their place is covered with thatch (Hebrew 
TOOHH,® "to cover") and the boards with pitch (Hebrew 
ZiPT,» which signifies the same substance). Here the letters 
are curiously transposed. In Latin this material is termed 
Pix; in Greek, PissA. Hence too the word Asphaltum. 

'hni •r\'»3. '^£op. *^nn. 
mi^- 'HIT- 'Hjn. «m£o. ^nar. 



DERIVED FBOM THE HEBREW. 19 

There is the Trough/ where they feed, and around it is 
Muck.* We are indebted to Hebrew for both these words ; 
the first signifying "to feed"; the second, "things rotten, 
corrupt, putrid." Sheep are derived from CiSHeB ' a sheep, 
the first letter being dropped to make it a monosyllable. 

Yonder is the Barn, the place for BaE, com. We call it 
also the garner, from the Hebrew GaRaN,* a threshing-floor. 

We now advance up a path, which leads to the farmer's 
home — that cherished English word. But it also proceeds 
from the same source as the other. HOMaH^ says Parkhurst, 
a " wall, as of a city, for shelter, protection, or defence!^ The 
word PATH is a singular instance of the way in which the 
original letters are hustled, in their transmission from one 
language to another. It comes from NeTHaB,® '^o tread 
donm," Here the unstable letter N is first knocked away, 
and the two last are transposed to form the word path. 

The house is built partly of stone from yonder Quarry, 
and partly of Brick. We trace the Quarry to the Hebrew 
QuOR,7 " to dig;' and the Brick to BTliQ,^ '' a flint:' Flmts 
were most probably used before Kilns (QiLaH,9 *'to roast*") 
were invented. 

Look up at the east and west Gables 1 They are covered 
with Lattice. GaBL^® in Hebrew signifies "a boundary;' 
and EaSiT, ^ " net-work!' Here the R is by us changed into 
its cognate L, and the two last letters are transposed. This 
is one of the comparatively few cases in which we find the 
English derivatives to be of two syllables. 

We go into the Garden, and find in one comer a heap of 
Rubbish, and a quantity of broken Tiles. We trace the 
Garden to GeDaR,* " a place fenced off, walled in '*; the Tiles 
to TiLA (S^D, " to 'patch, to sew up ") or to TiLA (»^n. " to 
hang wp, to suspend, to adhere to anything:'). And the Rub- 
bish we trace to RuPiSH,^ " mire or rnvd!' Hence comes the 
Greek Ryoopos, ' dirt.' 

'nip. ^yi:^^ M^p. ^°^3J. ^nt^T mj. 'c^^st 



20 THE ENGLISH LANGUAGE 

In that comer is a Hive, with a canvass roof. We derive 
the first from * HiB,* " to vyrwp round'^ and the last from 
EoPHaH,* " to incline, to let down, to slacken*' as opposed to 
the perpendicular walls. Thence come our words ^rump,* 
and * ramp! 

We now lift the Sneck, and enter the Hall. We owe 
these words to ZNeQ,' "a chain, fastening'* and to AHaL,* 
"a tent** Thence arise the Greek Aulee, and the Latin Aula, 
" a hall." The Door is made of fresh Planks. We derive 
the one from DaLeTH/ "a door,** the last letter being 
dropped. We find another cognate word in the last two 
letters, omitting the first, in our word Lid. We trace the 
other word to PLaCH,^ *' a slice.** In the haU hangs the 
farmer's staff, the skid of his chaise, his boy's skates and 
SATCHEL. The staff we trace to SaBaT,7 which means the 
same thing. Transpose the letters, a ad change B into its 
cognate F. The skid and skates we derive from SQiD,^ " to 
hind or fasten on.** Hence also our Socket. The satchel we 
find in the Hebrew ' ZaQL,^ " a bag ivhich ties.** 

An AXE and a sickle hang each suspended from a nail. 
We search for their origin, and find that ' AZD *° means an 
"AXE." Hence we derive also our Adze, and the Greek 
Axinee, " an axe." The sickle we trace to ZLiG,* " to draw 
ovi, fish hooks.** The origin of "nail" we find in N'AL,« 
" to fasten, a holt, a har.** 

In a corner is a pot of glue, and beside it a piece of rosin. 
Glue takes its rise from CLAW,' " to restrain, to confine.** It 
is the mother of a numerous progeny : Claw, clay, cloy, clue, 
clef; the Greek Kolla (glue) and Kleis (a key), the Latin Gelu 
{!* frost, ice'*), and the French Glu, Bird-lime,** and Clou, 
" a nail.** The RosiN and resin we find in ZoEI,* " to flow. 
Balm of Oilead.'* Here again we must transpose. 

We move on into the Saloon, and notice the Win- 
dow with its diamond squares of glass, and its old- 

*3j;. *n=in. 'p3r. ^Snx. 'rh% 'nb^- 'anti/- 
«ipa^. ^^pv. ^nio;. 'ihi 'hi!2' '«^d. *nif. 



DERIVED FROM THE HEBREW. 21 

fashioned hasp. The word Saloon seems to us at once to 
arise out of SaLHOON/ " a table " — it being the great centre 
of the room, the place of meals. The Window we derive 
from ID'O,* " to perceive, to see. In English W is generally 
prefixed to words beginning with this Hebrew letter. The 
Hebrew word is the parent of many other words which will 
suggest themselves to the scholar. The glass comes from 
GLaS,' to shine, to glisten,*' The hasp, from HaSB,* to con- 
trive, a contrivance,** 

In the centre is the table. At the side of the room are 
SHELVES, and one broad slab for the sideboard. These three 
words own as their parent the Hebrew SLaB,* "a ledge, a 
border.'* The B changed into F gives shelf. The S is 
exchanged for T by the Chaldee; and from the two other 
letters transposed we get * Tabula,' table. Thence also, I sup- 
pose, we obtain our "sleeve,** and the Irish name for aflat-topped 
mountain, Slieve, as *' Slieve-Bloom **; while the French also 
own the SaUve, as one of the lower mountains adjacent to 
Mont Blanc. The lip and lap come from the same root, the S 
omitted. 

But we do not pretend to trace out every derivative. It is 
a boundless field. 

On the sideboard stands a box of snuff, and a bottle of 
GUM. We detect the first of these words in NeSuB,® " to 
breathe, to blow, to inhale,** and transpose the letters accord- 
ingly. The second we detect in the Hebrew GaM.^ " to join 
together,** whence also the Greeks, as we observed, derived 
their Games, '* marriage.*' The carpet is of good Kidder- 
minster fabric ; and over the cradle is a canopy. The name of 
our modern fabric we trace to the antique CaEPaS,* ^'fine white 
linen'*] and the classical scholar remembers that the word is 
used by both Latins and Greeks to signify sails, &c. The 
CRADLE we derive from HEaD,^ " to shake, to flutter," because 
of the perpetual rocking. When H in Hebrew immediately 

^2^n 'ibti;- •3(yj. 'DJ. '^Dsn^. ^nn. 



22 THE ENGLISH LAKOUAOE 

joins E, there we, having no such commencing sound, use C 
instead of H. The canopy is from CaNoP,* " a vdngy 

We move on into the kitchen, which is furnished with a 
SETTLE, STOOLS, and BENCHES. We discovcr the two first in 
the Hebrew SeTeL,* " to fix, to plant firmly .*' Wlience our 
word, Still. Bench is traceable to PeCH,' " to spread out, a 
thin plate," the N being added as strengthening and defining 
the root. Probably our word patch is an offspring from the 
same parent. 

There is a tub filled from the water-butt outside, and a 
BUCKET set beside it. We see an old acquaintance in the two 
first words. God describes the ship of Noah as TuBeH.** 
Transpose the two first letters, and you get boat, butt ; while 
PUNT comes from the same source. We derive bucket from 
BuQeH,5 " a bottled 

The FIRE is of coals ; and the meat is turning on the spit. 
We find our fire in the Hebrew B*OE,^ " to bum '*; and to 
it we trace the Greek 'Pyoor,' "fire,'* and the Latin 'Furo/ "to 
rage," with many like words in other languages. The coals 
we find in GoHeL,^ " burning coals,'* and the spit in SPiT,* 
"to place, to set.*' Thence, too, we derive the pots we see set 
on the dresser ; for the same word signifies " cooking vessels.*' 
We seem to have dropped the S at the beginning, that we 
might not confound the word with Spots.** 

The HEARTH is encumbered with cinders, which have 
ceased to emit smoke ; while from the vessels on the hob 
comes forth a savoury steam. We detect the original of smoke 
and steam in ZMoCH,9 "to sprout, to throw offshoots, to cause 
something to arise,** which, applied first to vegetables, at length 
took a wider sense. In the latter word the final Hebrew 
letter is omitted, and we get " steam.** 

♦ A friend acutely suggested that the Greek Nana, the Latin 
Navis, a ahip, and our own navy, spring from Noah. 

7X^2' ^-)j;3. ''^nj. ^naa^. ^nov. 



s 



DERIVED FROM THE HEBREW. 23 

The original of hearth we find in HaE,* " to hum" whence 
also our word " cAar,"; that of cinders in QueDaR,* " to he 
dark or hlack "; and that of hob in 'HaB,' " a hosom" A box 
of matches and a piece of tinder lie side by side. We see 
the original of match in MaHaZ,* "to smite, dash, skake, 
agitate "; and that of tinder in TiNuE,* " an oven, a furnace'* 
The D is a complementary letter, giving it a more forcible 
sound. 

At the foot of the stove lie the tongs. We discover the 
source of stove in JfeSToV,* " to sd, to place, a fixture!" Here 
again the unstable letter N" drops off. The tongs we detect 
in NeTOQ/ " to toiich, to clash!* Here the N is not dropped, 
but transposed to the middle of the word, and ToNQ becomes 

TONGS. 

A flitch of bacon hangs from- the rafter ; some dough and 
SUET are lying on the dresser. The flitch we find in FLiCH,^ 
"to cleave a^smider, a slice**', the dough in T00H,9 "to roll 
together, to twist.** Hence also our word twine. The suet 
come from ZUD,^^ " to swell** whence also our word stew. 

Besides these articles is a jar protected by wiCKER-work, 
and a cauldron is boiling on the fire. The jar we derive 
from JaE,' to close up, a covered vessel "; or from NeTSaE,* "to 
keep!* a store- vessel ; whence by transposition, our Nurse, The 
CAULDRON is from QOEOTH,* " a deep 'plate or vessel,** and the 
verb TO boil we find in BU'O,* "to swell, or huhhle up!* 
whence comes our restless seei-hvot/. 

We find 'OQueL,* " to twist — ^very tortuous," as the origin 
of wicker. The word begins with the strange letter Oin, 
which is frequently rendered into English by W. The change 
of L for E is thoroughly established. 

A skewer lies beside some scraps to be given to the dogs. 
We trace skewer to ZOOE,® "to compress, to close up." 

'm *iiP' '2iJ' *inQ. 'l^:n «3V3. 
^-ir. *nv3. 'TvnaP' -i/u. nw- 'im 



*-np. 


»3j;. 


*ynD. 


» -nan. 


'pna. 


"nVa. 


» mtD. 


" T\l 


^v^ 


' r\iii;p- 


*in2- 


'hp}!. 



24 THE ENGLISH LANGUAGE 

The Zain not unfrequently is rendered in English by SO. 
The SCRAPS we derive from GaRaB,* to sckapb, to which, 
for energy's sake, we prefix an S ; so also does the Chaldee. 
Hence comes also the Scotch grdby " to seize greedily." 

A hasket of parched peas stands on the table, a nutmeg- 
grater hangs by a string on the wall We find the bud of basket 
in SeBeK,^ or SHeBeK, " to plait, to make wicker-work," and 
so we transpose the letters. So also we find the letters of pardi 
in a reverse order in HaEeB,' " to dry up." To grate we discover 
in GaRaD,* " to scratch, to scrape ; " and string in STiNQ,* " to 
bind." R is added by the Chaldee. A kettle simmers on the 
stove ; the coaX-scuttle stands in the chimney comer. We 
trace kettle, scuttle, and skillet to QuiLHeT*, "a cauldron, pot, 
or kettle," S being often added in English to words beginning 
with K. The simmering we discover in the Hebrew ZiM- 
MeR,'^ " to sing." A lighted candle stands near the oven. 
The EMBERS of the oven have almost become ashes. Looking 
into our Lexicon, we see that LaHT,** whcmce our 'light,' means 
" to bum, a flame ; " that candle comes from DaLaQ,^ " to 
bum ; " whence probably the I^tin Diligo, " to love," arises. 
But we have to transpose the letters, and then perceive that 
kindle and candle, with all their train in other languages, spring 
from this root. The embers come from EPHaR,i<> "ashes," 
and the ashes from ASH,* "fire." 

Beside the oven is a sack, filled with fagots, and a pail. 
The sack* was known by the same sound to the Hebrews. 
The FAGOT arises from AGGeD,' "a bundle*' — ^the diagamma 
being prefixed makes fagot. The tail comes from NeBeL,* 
*' a bottle," the N omitted. 

We ascend the stairs to the bedroom, and find a bed, with 
a hair-MATTRESS and a quilt. The stairs are provided for 
us in the Hebrew SaDaR,^ which we make into one syllable. 

^3-ij. *13D. '2in "1-1 J. 'p:i \r\nhp^ 

*°-|2». 'Jr«. *pK^. '1J». 'h22- "IID- 



DERIVED FROM THE HEBREW. 25 

The Hebrew signifies " to set in order, rows." Bed we derive 
from MaTaH,* the Hebrew M sometimes becoming in our 
language changed into B : thence also our Mat, Mattress 
is the Hithpael participle of 'AEaS,* " to stretch one's self — 
a bed." Hence also our HEAESE, the bed of the deceased. 
The Quilt we find in the same Hebrew letters, QuiLT,* "to 
contract or shrink up," referring to its doublings and seams. 
We see on the other side of the room a TOWEL-rail, a WAsn- 
iNG-stand, a piece of soap, and some soap-suDS. We discover 
WASH in CaVaSH,* the C, says Parkhurst, is transferred to the 
end, and we have the Saxon, Wascan^ and the English Wash. 
The soap owns its original in Z0aB,5 " to pine away : " the 
SUDS in ZUD,« " to swell, boil, or bubble." So also we find 
the root of Towel, in TUWaH,^ "to twist, to roll together.'' 

There is nothing in the Attic but lumber. In Hebrew 
ATTiQs is " a gallery." 

But it is time to descend, for the supper is ready in the 
CHAMBER below. CHAMBER from CaEaM,9 Latin, Camera, 
" an enclosed space." On the table are laid in orderly array 
a KNIFE, FORK, PLATE, and SPOON for each. We dip again 
into Hebrew, and discover knife in ]N"eQiPH,^o "to strike, to 
cut down," the letters being transposed : so the French Ganif. 
Fork we find in NePHiQ,' "to draw forth," E inserted by 
the Chaldee, and the unstable N removed from the front. 
We trace plate in PLAT,^ "something smooth, flat;" and 
SPOON in ASP,^ ' to collect,' the N of the close being a dimi- 
nutive, as in Samson; which signifies, *a little sun.' The 
letters, as in so many previous instances, are transposed. 
At each corner of the table is a vessel of salt. This, with 
its cognates in other languages, is derived from NeZeL,* " to 
melt." Here again the commencing N falls away, and out of 
two Hebrew syllables we make one in English. A JUG of 
water, cups, &c., adorn the table. We recognise the bud of 

snoD. 'tyn^v »D'7p. *ty3D. '3it. n^v ^^^D► 

^^r\)!<^ ^ana ^'^p3- ^pD3. '0^72. 'n^K. ^h\l' 

E 



26 THE ENGLISH LANGUAGE 

JQG in ZuQ* or JuQ, "to pour out:" the origin of Cup in 
CuP,2 "the hollow band." 

The tea-CADDY and urn grace the sideboard. A lamp fed 
with NAPTHA difiFoses its light. We trace caddy— Latin, 
cadvs, * a cask ' — ^to its root in CaD,^ ** a pitcher, pail, bucket," 
and URN to AEOON,* *^ a chest." We see that lamp has its 
origin in LaPiD,* "a torch," whence the Greek and Latin 
Lamjpades, "torches," and our "limpid,*' The M is here 
complementary : the English again omits the last letter, in 
order to preserve the word a monosyllable. NaPHT^ in 
Hebrew means " honey," a strange alteration of meaning, of 
which there are examples not a few. 

The loaf is set on the table, and you may choose crumb or 
CRUST. Crumb we detect in QEOOB,^ "the interior," the 
M before B being the usual complementary letter, and again 
a monosyllable results from two in Hebrew. Crust we ob- 
serve to arise out of HOOST,® " the exterior," R being the 
addition of the Chaldee. Here is a dish of poached eggs, 
the YOLK being very conspicuous. We dip into the Lexicon. 
PoaCH© is "to spread out," and YEoQ'o is "to be yellow." 
Hence comes the yolk, ' the yellow of the egg.' 

In the dishes before us are fish, flesh, and fowl. We 
trace dish to NeTiSH,* " to spread abroad." Again the luck- 
less N is discarded, and the monosyllable wins the day. The 
origin of fish has been given before. Flesh we cannot help 
deriving from BeSHer,* which means the same thing in 
Hebrew. The B becomes F, the R becomes L, and is trans- 
ferred from the third place to the second, when we have the 
English word Flesh. Hence also our word Butcher, * the man 
who sells flesh,' in Scotland, ' the Jlesher.* The derivation of 
FOWL is not so clear, for here we have to deal with that 
Proteus-like letter Oin. A bird in Hebrew is '0UPH.3 
Reverse the letters, and you have F'OU, whence, I believe, 
springs our English " Fowl." 

*piv. *p)3. »i3. *]n». *i-i^. •nai 
'3np. 'nvin. «niD *°pT. *t:'t03. '-12^3. '^Mf- 



DERIVED FROM THE HEBREW. 27 

The meat is a loin of lamb, very fat: there are also 
CHEESE and butter. Lamb in Hebrew is AMR,* in Greek, 
Amnos. We take the E of the conclusion, change it into L, 
and prefix it. Hence also our EAM and the Llama, Butter, 
FAT, and FOOD we trace to PHuDaE,* "fat." Cheese we 
trace to HHeEeZ,' which means the same thing. We have 
here omitted the middle letter E, in order to retain the mono- 
syllable. 

There, is wine just drawn from the lees, which is sweet ; 
and BEER, which is but sour. Wine, as many know, springs 
from YiN",* Latin, vinum, Greek, Oinos, French, vin, and so on. 
The lees are in Hebrew LeHeeZ,* "to press, or squeeze'' — 
the remains of the grape-skins or stone after pressure 
has been applied. Sour is letter for letter the Hebrew 
SOOE,^ "to turn aside." Sweet owes its origin to DiBS,7 
" honey of bees, or of grapes." We reverse the order of the 
letters, changing B into W, and D into its allied T, when we 
get the English sweet. Thence also the Latin Simvis. With 
the ending of the MEAL my paper concludes, MeLA® signify- 
ing " fulness." 



> nDS. » -na. ' pn. 
M^''- '\rh' 'no. 'b^3T 'k^d- 



28 THE ENGLISH LANGUAGE 



CHAPTEE IV. 

GREAT OBJECTS OF NATURE. 

Let u& look next at the derivation of the names of some 
of the Great Objects of Nature. 

1. Whence comes the word Elements I From 'ELeM,' ' to 
hide,* the secret materials of which all bodies around us are 
composed. These were, according to the ancients, Fire, Air, 
Earth, and Water. Fire is derived from B'OK,^ * to hum '; 
whence also the Greek Pyoor, and the Latin Pyra, * a funeral 
pile.' Air takes its rise from 'AIR,' 'to he brisk, active.' 
Earth, from ERZ,* 'the ground, earth, or glohe* The same 
word occurs in very nearly the same form in many other 
languages. Dutch, Aarde; German, Erde; Swedish and 
Danish, loi^d ; Turkish, Jerde ; Tartaric, Yirda.* The Latin 
Terra and Tellus arise from the same root taken in reverse. 
Water is an example of the strange dislocation of letters 
which words suffer in passing from one tongue to another. 
The same sound, nearly, is found in many other languages 
to express the same thing — in Dutch, Water ; in German, 
Wasser ; Danish, voter; Swedish, Vatten ; Gothic, watto; 
Russian, voda , and Greek, Hyoodor. These all are off-sets, 
I suppose from the Hebrew ReTaV.* Take these in reverse, 
change the V into W, and you have our ' Water! The Hebrew 
signifies * to he wet! The Ether comes from 'ETeR^, * to surrmmd, 
to encompass.' 

The word World is another example of letters taken out 
of the order in which they occur in their root. The World 

* Most of this learning is but second-hand. 
* ym- The Greek yn comes from i^^J * a valley.' • 301. ° lt2J!- 



DERIMSD FROM THE HEBREW. 29 

in Hebrew is TaVAL' Here the V becomes W, and is set 
first ; the E is atlded by the Chaldee, and the ending consonant 
is put next, while that which is first in Hebrew is set last 
in English. Our Sod is derived either from SaDeH,« *a 
field,' or from DaSA, 'grans'; thence, also, by the additional 
Chaldaic E, the green-swARD. Lifjht owes its origin to 
LaHat,' * to burn, a fiame.' It has many cognates in other 
languages. 

NOON seems to arise from XOOM,* 'to fthtmher'; from 
which one should gather, that our eariiest ancestors in their 
hot eastern clime, were accustomed to take a nap in the fervid 
mid-day, even as now the Spaniard takes his sienta. Eve 
springs from 'EeEeV,^ ' the west, the evening* by dropping the 
E. The Greek and the Latin words for the same season of 
the day are framed from the same root, by additions to it. 
The Greek Hespera takes an aspiration before Gin, and adds 
an S before the B or V ; the I-atin Vespei'a, takes a double 
Gamma. 

Our Day, Davrti, and Night, whence spring they ? I am 
inclined to derive the two first from ZaHeH,^ 'to be sunny.' 
The Clialdee turns Z into T. The presence of a final ' g ' in 
the Saxon and other cognate languages makes me uncertain. 
They wrote ' daeg.' 

Night, German, Nacht ; Greek, Nuhta ; Spanish, Koche ; 
Italian, noite ; Portuguese, nciite ; French, nuit ; Irish, Kocht ; 
Eussian, noch, all manifestly are traceable to NoCH,^ 'to rest.' 

The Star — Greek and Latin, A steer and A strum — receives 
its name, I believe, not from the Sanscrit word which 
signifies 'to strew,' — a very inadequate original — but from 
the mythology of the east. We read several times of 
Israel's forsaking Jehovah, and serving instead Baalim and 
Ashtaroth,^ Baalim signifies *Eulers,' and refers doubtless to 
the two great luminaries, which God made to rule the day 

*CDU *3n;?. •nnv. 'nu ^rmnoti;. 



80 THE ENGLISH LANGUAGE 

and the night. Baal is also spoken of in the singular, and 
then it means the sun. By Ashtaroth, when taken generally 
in the plural, and as distinguished from Baalim, it seems 
clear that the stars, the other heavenly bodies besides the 
sun and moon, are intended. Of these the planets would be 
likely to obtain the chief notice. But sometimes Ashtoreth is 
used in the singular, as an individual goddess, introduced 
into Israel by the Sidonians in the days of Solomon : 1 Kings 
xi, 5 ; 2 Kings xxiii, 13. By this word it seems certain 
that the moon is intended ; and that this was her name, when 
distinguished from the chief Baal, or the sun. Thus we read 
of Ashtoreth Camaim, or ' Astarte with t?ie two horns/ (Gen. 
xiv, 5,) which evidently points to the crescent moon with her 
two points.* 

But, taken generally in the plural, * Ashtaroth,' and as dis- 
tinguished from the Baalim — sun and moon — this word would 
designate the stars. Accordingly, both Latin and Greek 
retain the commencing A, while in our language that letter 
has been rubbed off, because of its employment as the inde- 
finite article. It is worthy of notice that the Latin has 
two other words signifying stars, Sidera and Stellce, containing 
elements of the same root from which proximately our 
English word may have arisen. If I mistake not, there are 
other traces in our language, and in the ancient ones, of 
this ancient heathen worship. Whence our word Easter? 
From this goddess. Whence comes our Alabaster i From 
HaLaB and Ashtoreth, *the milk of Astartee,*f The Hebrew 
aspiration is generally dropped in Latin and Greek. May 

* It appears that in later times the planet Yenus was also called 
'Astarte.' May it not be, because it also was found to be horned like 
the moon P ' But how could its horns be seen without a telescope P' 
The Rev. G. Jeans, in his ** Practical Astronomy " mentions one 
who saw her horns without a glass. And I have myself heard of 
another. 

t So Pliny mentions some precious stones, called by names which 
mean, Kidney of Hadad, Eye of Hadad, and Finger of Hadad, a 
god of the Syrians, so called. B. 36, ch. 71. 



DERIVED FIIOM THE HEBREW. 31 

not the word Lobster be derived from two words signifying 
* {he heart of Astartee ? * 

Our Summer may arise from ZIMMeE,* * to sing' for it is 
the time of the notes of birds; or from ZHiMmeB,* 'the 
foliage of the tree! Thunder owes its origin to ZHuNneE,* 
*to roar! The Chaldee changes ZH into T. A Shower is 
easily traced to SH*OE,* which means the same thing : and a 
storm, and a stream to ZoEM,* ' a copious po^iring, a flood. 
The English brook is traced to its root in BaEaK,* * a pool, or 
collection of water! Hence also, by omission of the E, comes 
our provincial word Beck, ' a brook/ 

The Sea is evidently derivable from Z*Ee,' ' to be agitated, 
troubled! Hence come our words sivin^, sfivay, and sce-saw* 
The Geimans have See ; the Dutch, Zee ; the Swedes, Sio, to 
signify the ocean. 

The Main comes from the ordinary Hebrew word for 
waters, MaiM:® the tide from ZUD,^ 'to swell, to boil.' 
Through the Chaldee we change the Z into T. 

The Ground, with grind, grist, gHt, all proceed from 
GaEaD,*® 'to scratch, scrape! Both these latter words also 
spring from the same root, by the Chaldaic addition of S. 

The Sky is an offshoot from SHeQlM,* ' tlie heaven! 

The Dew is from AUD,« 'vapour! The letters are taken in 
reverse. Dew in Hebrew is EoSoS ;* whence we obtain the 
Latin Ros, the Greek Drosos, the French Ros^, and in Eng- 
lish the Rose of a water-pot. 

Fog is derived from FOG,* ' to be cold, torpid! 

The French GrSle, ' hail,' is derived from GeEu V ' a pebble.* 

'iDi *nDV. n3V. m/K^. 
'D^pnty. 'ii«. 'DDT *Jia. 'hiy 



32 THE ENGLISH LANGUAGE 



CHAPTER V. 

MEMBERS OF THE BODY. 

Let us turn to some words designating the members of 

OUR BODY. 

The word body itself is derived from BaTeN,' which signi- 
fies 'the hellij ;' thence also are derived our words Bottom and 
Button. The Latin for 'body' — corpus — is derived from a 
word which has been cited once before — QeEOOB^ — *the 
internal parts;' whence we obtain our English word, 'the 
cro2) * of a bird, and crumyct. 

From this root, too, springs the Latin Cerebrum, or hrain 
and the Greek Kephalce, or head. In this last instance, the 
two closing consonants are transposed, and the L substituted 
for the E — a change quite according to rule. 

The crown of the head comes from QeRooN",^ ' a horn, or 
peak : ' the hair from SH'OE,* which means, ' to be rough or 
bristly, hair' In this case the S is dropped, and from that 
singular letter, the Oin, we obtain the aspiration which gives 
us the English ' hair* 

The skull and the skeleton are clearly traceable to SKoLL,* 
<to be bereaved, to be barren* — both these words designating 
the head and body when deprived of flesh. 

The Eye, (in old English plural, Eyn^,) is very naturally 
traced to the Hebrew for eye, Oin,® or Ain; the Brow, to 
PE'0W,7 ^to uncover* — it being the part destitute of hair 
between the hairy scalp and the eyebrow. 

The Jaw takes its origin from a word previously named, 
Zee or ZH'AW,® *to swing backward and forward,* as the sea 
does ; whence also out word saw. 



DEBITED FROM THE HEBREW. 83 

The NostriU, (Latin, Ifares,) to sneer, more, snort, are all 
of&boots of NeHaR,* 'the nostril' 

The old English Jowl has manifestly originated from 
ZHOAR,« ' the neck : " the chin, from ZHiQiN,» * the beard or 
chin : * the lap and the lip from the Hebrew expression before 
noted/ which signifies 'a ledge, a shelf, a slab.* The S is 
omitted, to distinguish them from slap and slip. 

The Neck probably claims as its parent 'ANeQ* " a collar, to 
plcLce upon the neck :' the Jlst, FeTiSS,^ * to strike, a hammer! 
The natural hammer is beyond doubt the fist. Here the two 
last letters are transposed. 

The Heart owns as its root HaRiD,7 ' to palpitate, to hurry, 
to flutter.' To the same fountain we track the Greek Kardia, 
and the Latin Cordis ; also the German, Herz; the Dutch 
Haai; the Swedish, Hierta; the Djuiish, Hierte ; and the 
Sanscrit Herda, The Hebrew for heart is LoB,® whence are 
derived our Life, Love, Lief, (or Lieve,) Lobe, Leave, and proba- 
bly Loop. 

The lungs lead us to the root LUNG,* ' to swallow down, 
the throat : ' the chest to HHeSTuN,!® ' the bosom.* The back 
springs from GaB,* ^anything curved, arched, or vaulted, the 
back.* Here the letters are reversed ; the change from G to 
K being quite in order. Hence also our ' bag.* 

The Side derives itself from ZHyD,« ' the side : * the flank 
from FaEaQ,* ' the bones of the neck ;' the belly from BeL'AW,* 
* to swallow.* 

The navel and nipple both take their origin from NaVelj,* 
'a skin bottle.* The first of these words was apparently 
originally applied to the abdomen generally. The Greek 
Omphalos and Latin Umbilicus, meaning the same part of the 
body, are derived from 'OPHeL,^ ' to swell, an emhience : * 
whence also we obtain the words ' ample,* and probably ' apple* 

•pqv- 'a^tOD. 'Tin. ^Tf- 'i/i^. "]vn. ^3J. 
•IV. 'pna. "1/^3. '^oj. '%]}' 



84 THE ENGLISH LANGUAGE 

The reader may remember that by this name Ophel, part of the 
city of Jerusalem was designated : 2 Chron. xxvi, 3. 

The waist may owe its origin either to AUZH,» ' to be nar- 
row,' or to HeZHT,^ * the middle, the half J I prefer the latter- 

From what shall we derive the Ktim i In Saxon, Gneow ; in 
German, iTme; Dutch, the same; Swedish, iTwd; Danish, if/ki; 
French, Oenou; Latin, Genu ; Greek Genu ; and Sanscrit, Janu* 
The reader may choose between KK*0,^ ' to bend the legs, to 
bow down,' and KN'O,* *to be abased, to humble on^e's selfJ* 
The first of these seems to me the best, though the second is 
nearer the sound of the word. 

The Shank clearly springs from SHOoEI,* * to run, a leg ;* 
whence also we derive our sock and stocking. 

For the word ankle we are indebted to *ANKOB,® 'the 
heel! It is the word which we recognise as an old acquaint- 
ance in Jacob, who laid hold of his brother's heel, and thence 
took his name. That singular letter, Oin, has the sound, at 
times, of ' ang,' ' ong.' Hence also the Latin, Ungula, ' a hoof! 



^fi». Tivn. 'nS' *W3- 'W' "3P)^- 



DERIVED FROM THE HEBREW. 85 



CHAPTER VI. 

KINDS OF MEN. 

In what follows, I shall study expedition, citing only a few 
examples, till I come to those of most importance. 

Take a few cases relating to different kinds, orderSi 
AND CONDITIONS OF MEN. King and Queen are traceable to 
CoHeN,* *a 'priest, a pHncel or else to QuiNG, 'a 'prince* 
From the Hebrew MaSHaL,« 'a ruler I springs Marshal^ and 
the Greek Basilyoos, a king. Bachelor, which has long proved 
such a stumbling-block to philologists, yields easily to this 
key. It is derived from BaCHEEE',3 * a young man* The 
last letter is doubled by way of intensifying, as is often the 
case, and the first E is changed into L by way of euphony ; 
we have then the word in question. The Latin Vir, * a man,' 
is traced to GeVEER,* 'a ?iero ;♦ where the first letter G is 
dropped : as in GePHeN,* also, whence our word vine is derived. 
The Greek Aneer, * a man' comes evidently from N'OR,^ 'a 
young man* 

Dunce is derived, by transposing the letters, from DaSaN,^ 
*to make fat, to lefat,^ as we say 'fat-headed.* Dolt comes 
from DaLeTH,® ' a door ; * as we say, ' as deaf as a post.* 

Rascal and Scoundrel are derived from words, the first of 
which signifies *a trader-,*^ the second *to be dark, turbid, 
filthy ;*^^ whence come also the words Dark, and the Kedron 
of Jerusalem. 

Priest is derived from PaEaSH,* 'to explain, unfold* 
whence also the word PJiarisee, Hence too our grammatical 
word, ' to parse.* 

• Hence also an old English Oaffer, 

'pyap' *b\i;D' 'Tnn. *t3J. *iqj. 'nj;:. 

'']tvr -n^T «^3T '"lip. ^BHD. 



86 THE ENGLISH LANGUAGE 



CHAPTEE VII. 

DRESS AND PHRASES. 

The same key will unlock to us the origin of our words of 
DRESS. Take two or three instances relating to the materials. 
Cotton owns as its parent CoTtoN,' ' to cover ^ to clotJie* (See 
Josephus, Ant. Ill, 7, 3,) whence come also the Greek Kiton, 
an under-garment, our word coat, and the Latin Tunica, Our 
Ftcstian is traceable at once to FuST,* *Jlax, linen, cotton :' 
and Satin, either to SaDiN,* *Jme linen,* or to S'ATiNZ,* 
* linsey-wohey' 

The Brooch and Breeches both spring from the root Bo- 
RoCH,^ "to reach across." Hence also our Bridge. Our 
Oaiters and Oarters, with probably Oird, arise from the root 
'GeTeR,^ * to surround, to wrap.' From this root, through 
a different pronunciation, the Oin, springs our word ' attire' 

From ABNeT,7 ' a belt or girdle,' are derived belt, band, 
bonnet. 

ITie Farthingale of our grandmothers clearly takes its rise 
from FaTHIGEEL,^ ' a swathe for the breast, a female girdle.^ 
Here, both the frequent letters R and N are inserted. Our 
apron comes from 'APER,^ 'dust* It originally signified 
*a duster.* 

The application of the same instrument will give us the 
origin of CERTAIN PHRASES, thereby putting new life and force 
into them. 

What is the source of the words of that truly English 
cheer — Hip, hip, hip, hov/rray i Translated into English from 
Hebrew, it becomes, 'Again, again, again, shout ye V^^ 



DERIVED FBOM THE HEBBEW. 87 

We speak of a thing as ' spick and span new* The first of 
these words is from ZiC,' ' to be pure,' the second from ZeBeN/ 
' to hiy* Hence it signifies, * new and dean, as just come from 
the shop* 

What means the phrase, 'doing things in a hugger 
mugger style V HuGGeE' signifies * a girdle* and MuGGeR,* 
' thrown down, thrown off! In what state would an Eastern's 
dress be without the girdle ? 

' The people there are all agog! Whence comes the phrase ? 
From a biblical and Eastern source. ** What aileth thee now, 
that thou art wholly gone up to the housetops i " Is. xxii, 1. 
'Agog' means 'cm the housetop!^ the best place for observa- 
tion in Eastern lands, where the roofs are flat. The Hebrew 
word is employed in the passage cited from Isaiah. 

Ztdfce-warm is, I suppose, fluid capable of being lapped : 
LaQ,« ' to lick.' 

What means Daddy f It arises from DauD,7 (whence 
David took his name,) and signifies, 'My beloved! Hence 
too we derive our Boat 

We speak of things done at random. Whence comes the 
word? From RaDaM,® *to dream, to sleep! The strength- 
ening N has already often occurred in our experience. The 
word signifies, then, * things as unconnected as in a dream! 
Hence spring the French Dormir, and our English Dream, 

We use the word Fie! to express disapproval. Whence 
comes it ? From FiHH,» ' to puff at, to reproaxih! 

A churl is from HeEuL,'<> * a brier! that pricks and scratches. 

A laum is from ROaN,* ' a green.' 

Julius Caesar is said to have quieted a sedition among 
his soldiers by the single word, Quirites ! It was a Hebrew 
word in its base, signifying Citizens! QuiRITIM.* Thus 
he reminded them that they were soldiers no longer. 

When an ofl&cer gives the command, 'Fix bayonets! 

*1T. 'pr. 'njn. *njD. 'jjn. 



I 



88 THE ENGLISH LANGUAGE 

Charger what meant the last word originally? 'Slay!* 
From HaEeG,* ' to slay.' 

Whence have we the expression, a cAair- woman ? or char- 
woman ? It comes, I believe, from the same root as Squire, 
* a hired woman,' from SCHEEE,« ' to hira' The Squire was 
the Knight's servant. 

The cry of the huntsman. Tally-ho ! would signify, ' He is 

off!'' 

'The riff-raff** is derived from a Hebrew word redoubled, 

which signifies, ' to grow weak, poor, worthless.' 

Whence is Helter-skelter derived ? From HeTeR, ' to wave, 
shake/ and KeDeR,* ' military tumult,* 

' «in. rhu;- * nai- • 113. ion. 



DERIVED FBOM THE HEBREW. 89 



CHAPTER VIII. 

THE ARTS. 

The arts, whether of war or peace, borrow their words 
from the same source. Whence comes our plough ? From 
PLoHH,* *to cleave asunder, to till the ground,* Whence 
the JlaiU From N"ePHeL,« ' to fall; the last letter doubled 
to express the frequency with which the instrument is made 
to fall, and the fugitive If of the commencement is lost. 

Whence comes ' war ? ' From AIR,^ ' to he ardent/ active. 
The remarkable initial Oin is again rendered into our language 
by W. Dagger and Dirk are easily traced to DeQueE,* ' to 
pierce; Here we have an example of the same letters being 
taken in the order of the Hebrew, and also, of their trans- 
position. 

Let us awhile consider the names of Colours. 

Whence comes our Roan ? From R'OaN,* ' to flourish; 
'to he green; Hence also our Green, the Oin prefixed : and, 
with B prefixed, our Brown. 

Whence come our lilac and scarlet? From HaCLEEL,^ 
* red; Th e letters taken in the reverse direction make lilac 
and in the direct order, with S prefixed, and R inserted by 
the Chaldee, scarlet Hence, also, the red feathers of a cock's 
tail are called his ' Hackle; Hence also the artist's ' lake; 
a kind of red. 

Maroon comes from ARGMOON",^ ' reddish purple : ' 
Carmine (and Crimson?) from CaRMEEL,^ 'crimson; Pink 
from NePeK,^ 'a ruby or carhunch; the letters being 

^PT 'U;T '^^^3n. ^IDJ-IK. "^^D-|3. ''IM. 



40 THE ENGLISH LANGUAGE 

transposed. Black arises from BLaQ/ 'desolate, desert* 
Hence also our bleak and Uight 

White, in German, Weiss, arises from ISIS,* * to he hoary* 
the S changed into T by Chaldee. Hence also our ice, * white 
water/ and our yest Blue seems to spring from TL'OO,' 
' red, and purple! We change the T into B, having no word 
beginning with T before L. 

Auburn is easily derived 'AUPuE>* ' to he reddish ; ' thence 
also come our Ochre, umher, amher, and faum. Hence also 
the Latin Ruher, Rufus, (red) Gilvus and Flaws (yellow.) 

Whence comes our Purple i From B*OK,* *to hum.' 
Thence is derived the Greek, Pyoor 'fire,' and Purros, red. 
From the same word repeated comes the Greek Porphyoorion, 
* purple,' and the Latin Pwrpu/ra, whence springs our Purple. 

Yellow traces itself to IEoHH,« Ho he green, greenish yellow.' 
Russet and Rust arise out ot SiSuE,^ * to he red' The letters 
are taken in reverse. Hence also our ' red ; ' the S ex- 
changed for T, and then corrupted to D. Still more easily 
is the foreign ' rosso ' obtained hence. 

Azfwre is readily found in ZHeHuK,® * the char sky,' and its 
celestial blue ; and Sorrel in SoEuQ,9 " to he reddish, tawny ; " 
I cannot account for the closing L. 

ny;. "Tj/a 'HT: 'iB^B^. •inv. •piB^. 



DEBITED PROM THE HEBREW. 41 



CHAPTER IX. 

METAXS. 

The Metals will aflford us some very interesting examples. 

It is noticed by philologists as an interesting fact, that 
while the names for the objects seen on the surface are 
common to many languages, the names for metals greatly 
vary. From which it is justly inferred, that no metals were 
discovered, or that most of them were not discovered, till 
after the dispersion of the nations. Let us look at some of 
these names. 

The name Metal} is simply transferred from Hebrew. 

Iron in Hebrew is BaRZeL;* thence we have borrowed 
our hrass, bronze, and basalt Hence also our Steel, and the 
Greek Sideeros, iron. The Greek Kalkos is derivable from 
HaLQ,' ' to be smooth* Hence our chalk Copper is trans- 
ferred from the Hebrew CoPPeE>* * to cover,* the malleable 
* stone' employed for covering: whence Cyprus took its name. 

Oold is in Latin Aurum. It is derived clearly from AUR,* 
' light* because of its brightness. Gold is in Greek, Chroosos. 
The original is evidently HHeROOZ,« 'gold! Our English 
name for the metal is found in GaD0L,7 * precious, great * In 
transposition the chief vowel is retained, the other rejected in 
order to make it of one syllable ; and the places of the D and 
L are shifted. 

Probably the Greek Kassiteros, 'tin,' is derived from 
QaSEET, ' bullion, cash,* 

Silver in Latin is Argentum, derivable from ARZ,^ 'earth,* (in 
Chaldee, ARQ,) and N ETOOI, ' ductile *—' Ductile earth,* The 
Greek name is Argyoorion, and this has clearly its first syllable 

G 



42 THE ENGLISH LANGUAGE 

AEQ,i and its second component is HOORI, * white.* Thence 
springs our English ' hoar, hoary* It means then * white earth! 
Mercury is evidently composed of the same closing word ; 
and its eariier component is MeRG,* ' to roll rapidly* a word 
which beautifully seizes on this metaPs peculiarity, the rapid 
motion of its globules, whence we call it ' quick * (or living) 

* silver * And mercury also is 'hoary,' or 'white/ The 
final syllables in the two metals are the same. 

But whence comes our Silver i From ZeHeL,* ' sparkling, 
shining* and OPHuR, 'earth dust* The Saxon was still 
nearer the original words—* Seolfer! 

Lead is in Greek Molyoohdos, which originates in MoRooBD/ 

* malleable.* Our English word is from NeTeL,* ' to be heavy.* 
Here the frail N at the commencement is once more thrown 
off, and the two last letters are transposed. 'As heavy as 
lead* is our ordinary comparison. From this same root 
springs the word Metal — * the heavy.* 

Sulj^hur and Orpiment both are derived from OPHREET,^ 

* lead,' The S is prefixed to the first, and the R added to the 
second, by the Chaldee. 

Glance we now at some of the Precious Stones. 

Adamant and Diamond a,Te the offspring of ADaMONI,^ * a 
ruby! from Adam, ' to be red,* and not from a Greek derivation. 
The Jasjjer is from YaSPeH,^ which signifies the same thing. 
The topaz from PaTDaH,® where the letters are curiously 
transposed. The Agate, in Greek Achatees, comes from CaD,*® 
which has the same meaning ; the Sapphire from SaPHEER* 
Our Opal and Amber, and, probably, ruby, arise from OPHeR,^ 

* to be reddish.* From the Hebrew BaRQuT,' * to glitter* we 
derive Emerald,vf\i\i its Greek and Latin parallels, Smaragdus. 
From this root is derived the Sanscrit Smaracata, 'an emerald/ 
together with Oarn^t. Also Margarita, (a pearl,) and pro- 
bably the modem Corundwn and Turquois. 

♦13110. '^tD3. 'tynW' '^TiDiii' ^nDts^. 

•mOD. ^13. *TDD. 'IDIf. 'jipia. 



DEEIVED FROM THE HEBREW. 43 



CHAPTER X. 

NUMERALS. 

A WORD or two next upon the Numerals. 

The word Number, (Latin Numerics,) itself is from NuMR/ 
'spots, a leopard/ The Greek ' Rythm* and our ^Arithmetic' 
arise from RiTH'M,^ ' a chain.' 

Our First finds its origin in the first word of the Hebrew 
Bible. " In the beginning God created the heaven and the 
earth." BeRASITT.' Here the English compresses a word 
of three syllables into one, and therefore retains but one of 
the textual vowels. The B changed into F, and the I taken 
after the E, give us First. From the same origin springs 
the German Erste. The Germans leave out the preposition, 
which we receive ; and the * 1/ which we prefer, they change, 
for the A or E. The Greek Protos hence derives itself : the 
Greeks rejected the S and the I. The Latin Pristinus here 
finds its home : its signification being, ' a former condition, 
ancient* Our One, Latin Unus, Greek Hen, come from 
AUN",* ' substance.' 

Our 'twin' is either from SHeNI,^ 'two ; ' the S becoming 
by Chaldee, T, and the other letters transposed ; or else from 
TAM,« * a twin: 

Our Ace, and each, Greek Eis, seeri to be from AIS,^ 'a man.' 

Our two, Gothic twa, Dutch twee, Gaelic Da or do, Sanscrit, 
dui, Hindoo, Chaldee, and Persian du, Latin and Greek duo, 
French deiujc — whence comes it ? 

'1D2' "cam. ^n^B^sia 



44 THE ENGLISH LANGUAGE 

From OUD,i *i0 repeat^ one more* Here all laoguages 
have reversed the order of the letters, and make it DUO. 
Our Cov/ple, and Latin Copulor, together with cavil, arise from 
CoPeL,« ' double: 

Our THEICE is clearly traceable to SLoS,» ' th/ree/ The S 
becomes T, the L becomes E — * Thrice.' Our Leash comes 
from the same, the initial S omitted. 

Four is in Hebrew ARB'O;* we take the last syllable, 
and prefixing it to the former, make a word of but one 
syllable— BO-AR—' four.' 

The Greek Tessares is from SeDeR,* *a row,* — ^the four 
fingers held up. The letters are transposed, the D becoming T. 

The Greek Penti, which signifies * five,' is derived from 
PeTeHH,^ ' the open hand* all five fingers displayed. And I 
am inclined to trace the Greek Beca, 'ten,' to TeQ'A,^ 'to 
strike hands, to proclaim! The two Jive fingers brought to- 
gether with a clap, would be the sign of ten. 

The Greek — aKovra, as in reirirapaKovTa, — ^the Latin — agi/nta 
as in Qv>adraginta, seem clearly to claim 'AGeD,^ ' a bundle,' 
as their original Nor let any be dissatisfied, if we trace 
the Greek 'iKarov and the Latin Centum to the same root- 
The Greek CHilioi would seem derivable from HHiL,^ *a host, 
the sand* as if it were impossible to exceed this sum. The 
Latin Mille is surely to be traced to MeLA,*^ 'fulness/ 
which breathes the same idea. Our Humdred we trace to the 
Hebrew 'HoDeR,i ' a flock.' 

The TH at the end of our ordinals is clearly of Hebrew 
origin ; as ' Fov/rth*—iiom EeBOEETH. 

^iiy. '^M. 'tt^B^. *j;3"i«- 
mo. •nriQ. 'j;pn. nm •^'•n. ''vhn^ ^itt- 



DEBTVED FBOM THE HEBBEW. 45 



CHAPTEK XI. 

GEOGKAPHY. 

Let us take a few words belonging to Geography. 

1. First, notice the origin of what are called the quartera 
of the globe. 

Europe evidently drew its name from 'OEeB/' the evening, 
the west! Asia, from the sun-rise, EEZHA,* ' the going forth* \ 
and Africa, from PHeReQ,^ ' to break, to rend asunder, the 
neck,' as signifying ^the peninsula;* almost separated from 
Asia, at Suez. 

East arises from the same original as Asia : West, I think 
owes its origin to * OST,' * ' splendour ' — the reference being 
to the colours of the sunset. 

A hay seems clearly to own as its parent BAeH,^ * to enter/ 
It is the point at which the sea enters the land, and at which 
ships therefore can enter. The Coast again seems to take its 
rise from QuoZT,^ ' the end, the cutting off, the finishing* of 
the land and of the sea. A shore derives itself from ZHOEe^ 
' a rock, a stone, strong,^ whence also come our words * sure,' 
and ' the Jura' Mountains. A cove is in close correspondence 
with HH0PH,8 ' a coast, or shore,* 

A city, in Latin urhs, seems to arise from * 0IR9 'to stir' — 
the place of activity. A ivick, (as 'Soithmck,) Greek Oikos, 
Latin Vicvs, seems derivable from VIQ,'° 'a castle, palace, 
fortress.' 

^3n;f. *»y^ 'p-i3. 'TiBu^. 
n«3. 'n)ip^ '-ny. ^^^in. nu^. ^^pa 



s 



46 THE ENGLISH LANGUAGE 

The Nore is derived from NaHaR' 'a river* The SplugeUy 
a pass over the Alps separating Switzerland from Italy, 
conies from PeLeG,* to divide. 

YAK3 is the Hebrew for ' river* It is repeated in many 
other languages — the Arar, the Aar^ the Yare, the Wear, the 
Wyre, the Aire, the Ayre, the Waver. 

Has the Thames any connection with Thammuzl It is 
certain from the Latin TAamesis, that the final S is radical. 

Are not our Eton, and Eaton, derived from 'EDeN'?^ The 
Greek Heedonee, — * pleasure/ — certainly springs therefrom. 

Are not the words Hebrew, Iheri, and Hihemi, different 
plants from the root *0BRT,5 signifying, 'those who have 
crossed over/ and afterwards perhaps generally, 'foreigners.' 
Are not the Arians derivable from AEI,® ' a lion ? ' Would 
not courage be esteemed more highly of old than ploughing, 
to which Max Muller traces it ? So we have the " lion-like 
men of Moab," in Scripture. 

The Keltic race is that to which we belong. Does it not 
clearly arise from QuELT,^ ' one of short stature ? * Hence 
our kilt, a garment cut short at the knee ; also clout, clot, 
clod, and colt, probably also skittles, or short pins. 

The Cirnbri or Cymry, another celebrated name, is it not 
manifestly due to CiMeE,® Ho be scorched, black V The Umbri 
of Italy seem to me to be our old friends, the Amorites of 
Scripture, '0MEI.9 

*ni^. 'na;;. «n«. 'o^p- '102- '^idj;- 



DERIVED FROM THE HEBREW. 47 



CHAPTEE XII. 

GRAMMAR. 

My next subject is Grammar. 

While the Grammar of the Teutonic nations differs 
greatly from the Semitic, there seem to me to be strong 
traces in English of our early original. 

Let us see what light Hebrew will throw upon the verbs ! 
The English substantive verb ' to &e/ is composite in its con- 
jugation ; several other words being entwined with the one 
above-named. 'To he* comes from BE,i ' to come or go.' The 
form *is' arises from the Hebrew IS.,* which signifies 'to 
be, is, are, was.' Thence is derived our English Yes; that 
is, *it is so* The form I AM might seem at first equally 
traceable to AUN,^ 'substance,' or to 'AMD* 'to stand'; 
but the Latin SUM, its parallel, shows that it is derived 
from a word beginning with Oin ; as the Latin very fre- 
quently so renders that letter, or at least inserts the letter 
S before it. Are seems to point to a derivation from ' AIK,* 
*to move.' These remarks apply also to a considerable extent 
to the Greek and Latin substantive verbs. 

Let us take a glance at the regular Greek verb Tyoopto. 
(rvTrrw.) *to strike.' It owns as its fountain-head, I believe, 
the Hebrew DuPeQ,^ to 'strike, to drive forward by beating.' 

Then the inflections of the present may be accounted for 
thus. ' I strike,' — ^^j|^. p^l. Here the final syllable of the 
first person is rejected for brevity's sake, the Q becomes for 
euphony T, and we have Tvtttw. 

»Sa *B^^ *]1«. 'IDV' 'Tj;. 'pDT 



48 THE ENGLISH LANGUAGE 

The origin of the next inflexion is not clear to me. The 
third person arises from the addition of the Hebrew suflSx, 
HOC* The dual rvwr-eroy is evidently the addition of the 
Hebrew AToM,^ 'ye/ Thus too we gain the formation of the 
second person plural. The first person rvm-ofiiy, I derive from 
the suffix of the Hebrew pronoun ' we/ — ^ANHoNo.^ Here the 
first N becomes M — a quite regular change, — the letter of 
aspiration is, as usual, omitted, together with the final vowel, 
and the inflection is accounted for. Of the third person 
plural there are two varieties : one ending in — oy, and one 
in ovffi. The first seems to me the result of the simple 
addition of the Hebrew for 'they,' — HoM.* The Greeks 
love not M as a closing letter; hence the M turns to its 
cognate N. The other form seems derivable from the addi- 
tion of the Hebrew IS.* 

The future, remarkable by the internal addition of S, 
appears to arise from the conjimction of the verb ' to haste '* 
with the original root. Thus n;7rr-*«c-«. 'I haste to smite/ 

I derive the first person of the imperfect from prefixing to 
the root the first letter of the Hebrew ' I,' and by affixing 
the Hebrew for ' substance/ {\)l^*) which is the basis of eivai, 
and of all the infinitives of the regular verbs. 

The optative both of the substantive verb, and of the 
regular ones seems evidently the result of prefixing the 
Hebrew for '0/ '0 that!' 7 to the root, or of its adding to 
the interior. 

2. In Hebrew there is, beside the usual active voice, a 
conjugation called causative, or HiphiL Thus 'to eat' 
becomes in Hiphil, * to cause to eat.' 

Now we have not a few causatives, or Hiphils, in EnglisL 
Thus we have to hhtsh from BuSH,8 ' to be ashamed* But we 
have also Abash, 'to cause to be ashamed' This proceeds 



DERIVED FROM THE HEBREW. 49 

from the Hiphil HaBEESH, which has the same sense as 
our ' abash.' So * to fall/ and ' to felL' 

The same might be proved of the words, Abase, Abet, 
Abridge J Abate, Accrue, Abolish, Affront, Allay, Alloy, Appal, 
Arrest, Assuage, Assure, Await, Awake, 

3. There are also reflective verbs commencing in English 
with STj and- closely allied with the Hithpael of Hebrew, 
which is also reflective. Thus our word ' Starve* comes from 
E'AV,* 'to hunger* with ST prefixed, and the letters trans- 
posed. Thus Strive is from EIV« ' to conterid* with ST pre- 
fixed. So Stand is from ' AMD,3 * to stand* with the same 
letters prefixed. 

The same might be shown in strangle, stroll, stir, steer y 
struggle, stutter, stagger, stalk, strip, stammer, stride, strut, 
strumpet, stubbo^m, stumble, and perhaps sprawl. 

4 The letters commonly omitted in our English derivatives 
are those which are least stable in Hebrew. Thus If com- 
mencing and H {He) final are oftentimes dropped : for the 
latter a T is generally supplied, as in Boat, Waist, — examples 
given above. 

5. There are some few instances of an M formative pre- 
fixed to English words — as Machine, from CHOON, ' tofla, 
to set in order, a contrivance :' and Master from SaTeE,** ' an 
officer, overseer. Thus, I think, our word March comes from 
AECH,^ — Greek Erchomai, — ^to go,* Also Massacre, from 
EaZHaCH,^ 'to murder,* Mongrel* comes, if I mistake 
not, from 'ONGEeL'® * uricircumcised! 

6. Comparatives form another subject at which we may 
glance. In Latin the comparative is generally formed 
by adding — ior to the positive ; and the superlative by the 
addition of — issimus. In Greek the same results are effected 
generally by the additions of — oteros, and — otatos respectively. 
The comparative in both languages seems derived from 

* Webster derives it from the Saxon * to mingle.' 

*\\2- '-)t3tr- 'm«. 'nvi- 'Vi;?- 

u 



50 THE ENGLISH LANGUAGE 

YOTeR,' 'to excel, to exceed*; and the superlative in Latin by 
the addition of ' IZHuM,* ' strength, substance :' thus Spurcus 
comes from ZeEeQ,^ * sprinkled, spotted,* Spurcior then would 
be 'more spotted;' and Spurcissimum would signify 'dirt itself* 
Probably IZHuM is the origin of the Greek superlative in — 
istos. The superlative — otatos seems to come from * ODl ' OD,* 
'for ever*: — 'strong for ever/ — or, as mathematicians say, 'to 
the nth! Hence also the — ism, which occurs at the end of 
many words. GdXwin-ism, ' the system or essence of Calvin/ 
' an Americanism/ and so on. 

Our English comparatives are formed by the addition of 
' more ' and ' most.' Thus ' Fore ' — Fore-more — (' former *) 
Fore-mo5^. Hind, Hind-77w>re ('hinder,') hind-mo5^. This 
origin is usually less observable than in the above instances, 
thus — 'great,' ' greater,' ' greatest.' 

We may note here why so many of our common compara- 
tives are irregular. Tims both ' bad ' and ' good ' are irregular 
in their steps. We can account for it. The Hebrew for 
' good ' is TOB,& whence comes the Latin Bonus (good) and 
our BOON, by reversing the letters. Had we retained 
the original BeT for the positive degree, we should have 
had BeT, Better, Bettor, (Best). But this series was 
so like that of Bad, Badt^er, Badmo5^, (Bast) that confusion 
was sure to arise. Hence the matter was compounded — a 
new positive is given to the first series, and the two other 
comparatives are retained: but while the positive of the 
second series is kept, the two remaining comparatives are 
superseded by Worse, worst 

It is interesting to observe traces of this word TOB 'good' 
in Latin and Greek, as well as in English. Better, and Best, 
are clearly derived from it, as also our ' To BOOT.' 

Though the Greek has Agathos in the positive, as the 
English has 'good,' yet in the comparative it has 'Beiaon* 
and in the superlative 'jBeMstos.' The Latin Bon-yxB is 
apparently a corruption of Bot-us. Then comes the compara- 



DERIVED FROM THE HEBREW. 51 

tive Melior from Me'LA * full/ and lastly ' O^^Mmus,' whick 
is but a transposition of TOB. 

7. Our pronouns are drawn from the same fount Who v& 
from the Hebrew HOC — ' he.' Our He is from the Hebrew 
feminine HEE,* and our English feminine is distinguished by 
S added. The Greek article ' Ho,' and * Hee ' are clearly from 
the same source. The Latin Ule ' he ' is from ELLeH* these. 
The Latin Nos^ the French Novs clearly spring from the last 
syllable of the Hebrew for ' we.' ' Thou* whence comes it ? 
From ATaH* 'thou.' Whence comes TAem?' FromATeM,*^ 
Hhem.' The post-positive article Greek 'Eos*, is derived 
from AISH, a man. 

8. Our indefinite article 'a' is derived from the definite 
article in Hebrew, 'Ha,' — the aspiration being omitted. Our 
definite article *the* is from ZeH^ 'this'; and '^^a^'is from, 
ZAT,' that When Frenchmen begin to pronounce English 
they often substitute 'Z' for 'th'—'«at'— for 'that.' More- 
over, we have seen that D is put by the Chaldee for Z. 

9. English words beginning with C/Vi, as ' t^ri-merciful ' 
derive this negative appendage from AIN,® 'none.* This 
same adjunct is found with the same negative meaning in 
both Greek and Latin. AN-eerithmos, ('numberless,') iNsomnis, 
* sleepless,' 

10. And now a few words on the English, Greek, and Latin 
Particles. We have seen the derivation of ' Yes ': let ua 
look at that of No, Nay. We turn to our Hebrew lexicon 
and find NOA® to signify, ' to refuse, deny, retract, annuV 
Hence come the Latin Non and Ne, the Sanscrit Na, the 
French Ne, and Nier ' to deny.' Whence have we the Latin 
Quippe ? Whence the French Avec ? From ' AQuaB,' *® ' the 
heel, because of.' 

Whence comes the Latin Nam.'i ' for.' From the Hebrew 
NAM,* 'said.' 'On the ground of what has been said' — 
'we afiSrm further.' Whence the Latin olim, 'formerly'? 

^«in. 's^T 'n^». 'T]ryv<^ 



62 THE ENGLISH LANOUAGE 

From the Hebrew OULiM,i 'time hid from man, an age.* 
Jam, ' now/ is from YOM,« * a-day/ Whence the Greek 
ayay % (' much, very/) From ACaN",^ 'truly, indeed/ Wlience 
the Greek K^i\ ('now/) From 'ATeH,* 'now,' the R being 
a Chaldaic addition : thence too the Greek word tira. Whence 
spring Et, Etiam, and Item ? From AT,» and ATeM,« 'with,' 
and ' with them.' Kai comes from KaH,^ ' so/ Ert from 

* OUl),' 8 ' yet.' MaXa from MAD,9 ' greatly.' Apa comes from 
AEaH,io 'to gather/ AXXa from ALO,i ' but if.' Our 'But; from 
BuLT,* ' except, besides.' Lest, least, else, and still, seem all 
the offspring of ZeLT,3 • except, unless ;' and the Latin Saltern 
and our Seldom, appear to spring from the same word with 
the addition of AM,* 'if,' making together 'except if — 

* Seldom ' being not the rule, but the exception. 

. Our Why, and Eh take their rise from AIcn,6 'where?' 
The Latin ^an*m 'but little,' is from PaltuM,^ 'rent, torn, a 
fragment.' 

11. Our words begining with Mis, as 'wis-spend,' derive 
this prefix also from the Hebrew MAS,7 'reject, to refuse, vile.* 

12. The tennination — *kin,' as 'kilderHri,' comes from 
KaTON',8 'little; the two syllables compressed into one, and T 
elided. Thus ' kilderAm' means, ' the small cauldron.' Thus 
catkin means ' a small cat,' and mannikin, ' a little man.' 

13. The Old English * An' signifying 'if/ 'An it please 
your honour/ evidently takes its rise from AM,^ ' if/ So the 
Latin and Greek An. Our yet, from 'OD,*® or ' ED, ' more' 

14 Wlience is derived the Latin is ? From the Hebrew 
AIS/ ' a man.' Thence proceed also the os and us final, KaX-oc, 
Magn-w«. Whence arises the Greek termination — watg ? 
From the Hebrew *OSHeH,« 'to make.' Thus ' ofjiottocis, 
is 'a making like.' From the same source comes the Latin 
— 0SU8. Tenehv-osus, ' made dark, full of darkness/ 

'chV' *CDV. 'p«. ♦nn;;. *n«. ^CDn». ^n^. 
«iij;. ^i«D. ^%*n». '^bii• 'rhi- 'n^?. "cdk. 
*.T«. «a-iD. 'DSD. 'Pp. '-^DS. ^n;;. 'iin^- 'nm- 



DERIVED PROM THE HEBREW. 63 

Whence arises the final— t<r<ra in Greek ? as in ^vpwjtoiynrtTa, 
'A Syro-phenician/ From the Hebrew ASSaH,^ ' a woman. 
Hence the Italian has ' princip-6««a/. ! a princess/ 

15. The subject of prepositions is one of much interest. 
Our 'off,* as 'offset, o/spring/ Latin Ab, Greek Awo, seem 
derivable from AB,^ 'a father, * To,* Latin, ,4 tf, is from 'AD,* or 
AT,* * up to,* or * vnth,* Apud is from B'AD,* * up to.' * Athwart 
is I believe from TaHaT,^ ' under* the E added by Chaldea 
Perhaps this is the source of the Greek Kara, ' down.' Our 
'on* is from 'OL,^ 'upon* Perhaps also the Greek Ana 
* upwards,' is from this stem. The Greek Epi (upon) is from 
'OL PI,® *on the month of.* Our 'through* and 'thorough* come 
from THR*0,® * a door.* It is the parent of the latter syllable 
of ^xtra, and of the preposition Trans. Perhaps this word, 
taken in reverse, and with a double Gamma prefixed to Oin, 
is the original of Porta, port, Porte (the Ottoman). It is, as I 
suppose, the source of the Greek Dia, 'through,' the E omitted. 
The English ' Against* is derivable clearly from NeGeD,**^ 'in 
front of* The letters are transposed, and S inserted before T. 
The A with which it begins is the remains of the old * On. 
Thus ' asleep ' is in Old English " on sleep," (Acts xiii, 36,) 
' afoot ' is " on foot." Our ' From ' is from BeTEoM* ' at the 
Cfiitting off, at the beginning.* Our over, Greek hyooper, Latin 
Super, with like sounds in other languages, is evidently from 
*OBeE,« ' to pass by, or beyond.* Hence pix)bably the Greek 
Peran, ' beyond* and perhaps Peri, ' around.' The Greek Pros 
' to' is from BeEaS,^ 'at th^ head :' and Amphi, denoting ' on 
both sides* is probably either from APHI,^ the two nostrils, or 
P'AMI,^ 'the two feet* Our English 'fore* and 'for* spring 
from FE'O^ 'to go before.* This is also the original of the 
Latin and Greek Pro, and of the Greek Para, * beyond ' : the 
same Hebrew word signifying, ' to loose, to let go, to be lawless.^ 

sntt^«. *3«. 'i;;. ti^. *Ti;a ^nnna 
'tt^sia "^5iS. '''Di!^' ^;;na. 



64 THE ENGLISH LANGUAGE 

The Greek Hyoopo, the Latin 06, and Stib, claim 'OUB'-'to 
wrap round, to cover,' as their parent. The Greek Ama is 
from AMaH,^ 'a companion/ The Greek Anti, 'against,' and 
' instead of* arises, I believe, from 'AMT,3 ' Over against' The 
Greek Akri, and Mekri 'as far as,' * up to,' seem evidently the 
offspring of 'AD QEeH,* * to the meeting of' and MeQEeH,* 
*from the point of meeting* The Greek Syoon, and Meta signi- 
fying ' mth* are derived respectively from SOON,^ ' to lean 
v/pon, to border on; ' and from MeTA,^ *to com^ to, to reach to, 
to come upon,' 

The subject of the Greek prepositions is one of great 
moment in the study of the New Testament ; and any light 
thrown thereupon can but be of service to our clearer com- 
prehension of the Word of God. A very learned contributor 
to the Quarterly Eeview suggested, that the origin of the 
prepositions of the Greek might one day be traced to some 
Oriental tongue. It is even so; and that tongue is the 
Hebrew. There are, however, some Greek prepositions, for 
which, as yet, I haye found no source : as En and Eis. Nor 
do I feel sure about Ek, * out of,' though I am inclined to 
derive it from HeLK,® ' to go.' 

16. By this key we explain that anomaly in English, that 
some singulai* nouns have a plural termination. Why do 
we always speak of riches 1 Because it is the daughter of 
EeCHeSH,^ * wealth.' Why do we speak always of a m^eans f 
Because its derivation is from MeZHA,'*^ * to find, to contrive' 
We insert the vowel into the midst, and add the strengthening 
N. Then we have the word ' MeANZ.' 

There are two rocks in the mouth of the Severn called 
respectively 'Flat Holmes' and 'Steep Holmes, why are 
they so denominated? Because derived from HeLMISH,* 
'Jiint, rock' Thus their names are, ' Fiat Eock,' ' Steep 
Eock.' 

'Double, or quits' is the gamester's cry. Why has it 

* 31;;. * no;;. ' rw- * ^^v- Ti^- * ^^V^- 
^\VW' '«£0D. nSn. ^tt^sn. *°«vo. 'm^din 



DERIVED PROM THE HEBREW. 65 

always the S final ? Because it is derived from QuiTS,* ' to 
finishy an end,^ 

17. Whence comes our suflSx hood? as in manAtwrf, girl- 
hood ? It arises clearly from HOOD,* * majesty, glory, bloom 
of youth.* Whence our suffix — ness ? Either from NeSA,^ 
' to bear up, a burden,* or from NeZHeB,* 'firmness, root, stem 
hardness.* In the latter case the third consonant is omitted. 
From the same root comes our — ship, as lordship, soldiersAip. 
Whence our suffix — ward? as in 'nj^ward, hea.wenward ?* 
Either from YaEI),^ 'to descend, to slope dovm* or from 

'ODeR,^ ' to arrange, to dispose* 

18. Our common words, Be,*^ Gome^ Oo? Do,^^ are all easily 

traceable to Hebrew expressions signifying * to come/ ' to rise 
up,' ' to reach,' ' to plant,' respectively. 

Whence are derived our word of exhortation ' now,* with 
the Greek Nee, and the Eoman JVe of interrogation ? From 
NAW,i a word of exhortation. 'Come n^u?,* * Come, I pray 
thee* 

19. Words of like sound in English, but possessed of widely 
different senses, are the offspring of different Hebrew roots^ 
'A rush* is derived from a word signifying 'to tremble;' to 
' rush ' comes from EXJZH,* ' to run* ' To plait,' and * a plot * 
come from PaTTeL,* ' to twist* But ' a gra^s-plat* ' a plot of 
ground,' are derived from PLaT,* * smooth, flat' The Old 
English 'fray* in the sense of 'frighten* comes from YEAy,* 
signifying * to fear,' with a double gamma. But * a fray ' in 
— ' The latter end of a feast is better than the beginning of a 
fray* — is derived from FE'A,® 'lawless, to take vengeance* 
Thus Yoke is derived from 'OUQ,^ ' to restrain, bind together* 
while Yolk^ is derived from a word signifying YeUow. 

7ip. *Tin. ^«a^3. ♦nifj. *T^^ ^n;;. 

'tO^D. 'KT. ';?iD. 'pv. 'pT. 



66 THE ENGLISH LANGUAGE 



CHAPTER XIII. 

MYTHOLOGY. 

Let us now glance at some instances taken from the 
MYTHOLOGY of the ancients, in which this promises to be a 
most effectual key. The fables of the heathen are generally 
distortions from the narratives of the Bible.. 

Whence came the Greek Titan ? From Satan, as Hislop 
observes ; the S changed into T by the Chaldee. 

The Cherubim,^ set at the East of Eden after man was driven 
out, to guard against access to the tree of life, must have greatly 
struck our first parents ; and the story of their setting up 
must have been transmitted after the flood. They are also 
called Seraphim,' or ' burning ones,* because they dwelt in 
the midst of fire : Ez. i. ; Is. vi. God perpetuated the memory 
and the likeness of them in the four living creatures which 
were set above the ark of the covenant. The Teraphim of 
Laban were, I suppose, representations of these : S being by 
Chaldee changed into T. May not the Sjphinx be derived 
from this root ? 

We find among the heathen all sorts of representations 
of the Cherubim. The lion, eagle, and man are combined 
with the ox and other creatures. We find also traces 
of this story of the "four living creatures," (Rev. iv,) in the 
traditions of the Gentiles. Hence we read of the Oardens of 
the Hesperides, whose golden fruit was guarded by a dragon. 
This refers to Eden, the serpent, and the Seraphim, — the 
watchful guardians of the tree of life. In Hcsperides the 
definite article is retained, the letters of l^eraphim are trans- 
posed. Hence also the Egyptian god Serapis derived his 
name. 



DERIYED FROM THE HEBREW. 57 

From the Cherubim came the Cabiri, the mighty gods of 
Samothrace and Lemnos ; and, as I suppose, the Corybantes, 
priests of Gybele ; with Cerberus^ the three-headed dog, that 
guarded the entrance of the infernal regions. From the 
same root spring the Latin and Greek Gh^phus, Gryoopes, 
and our English Griffin, which name is repeated in various 
forms, in almost all European languages. Griffin is evidently 
a reproduction, in the same order, letter for letter, of 
Cherubim. This animal, now consigned to heraldry alone, 
was in ancient days represented as composed of parts of the 
lion and eagle. It was supposed to watch over mines and 
treasures, and was consecrated to the sun. 

Traditions of the deluge and of its ark, lingered long among 
all nations. Out of the principal actors in the Scripture 
history of that period, the heathen made their gods. Saturn 
described Noah, as the hidden in the ark for a year ; from 
SaTuE,* to hide.* From 'Japhet' came Jupiter Japetus ; 
from * Ham,' the god Ammon. 

The dove of Noah became deified in several ways. A dove is 
called in Hebrew YONaH,* and hence arose the story of 
YOONo, or Juno. It was pronounced with a double gamma, 
and hence arose Venus, whose delight was in the dove. From 
the same source we derive the nymph /tio, a sea goddess, 
daughter of Cadmus, *the man of the East,' (KaDeM.)' 
Janus is probably Javan, ancestor of the Greeks. 

The Greek Zyoos, in the genitive Dios, — ^in Sanscrit Dyaus 
in Latin Deus, — is derived, I think, from the Hebrew 
ZHOOZH,* 'to shine, to be bright.^ The first letter of the 
word is by the Chaldee changed into T. Hence the change 
in the Greek genitive of Zyoos-Dios. The general Greek 
word is THeos, * God,' the Latin Deus. 

Minerva seems to mean MeN-'ERVaH,** 'fro'm, the West: 
And Proserpine may be derived from PaEaS-ERBaH,^ 'the 
expanse of the West: 

* Hence is derived the Greek * Mystery,^ which wo have borrowed. 

'iriD- S13T. 'DTp. 'fIV. »n3");7.]D. «{y-)2. 



58 THE ENGLISH LANGUAGE 

The goddess Rhea,^ signifies ' a shepherdess,^ Ceres means 
a plough^ HHeReS.« 

Apollo, the god of music, is detected in YooBaL? the son of 
Lamech, '* the father of all such as handle the harp and organ : *' 
Gen. iv, 21. From his brother Tuhal-Cain, "the instructor 
of every artificer in brass and iron/* we obtain the origin of 
Vulcan, god of the forge. 

The story of Iphigenia is stolen from Jephthah and his 
daughter, as the very word shows. 

It is remarkable that the Hebrew for 'serpent' occurs 
several times in the heathen stories, as Python, Phaeton, and 
Neptune : all apparently from PeTeN",* ' a viper.' 

Cupid, with our word * covet* the Latin * cupio,' and the 
Greek Agapee, 'love,' all arise out of 'AGeB.s 'inordinate 
affection.' The Greek keeps close to the Hebrew, the others 
transpose the lettera. 

Zoroaster is to be derived, as Hislop has given it, from 
ZeE*0, *the seed,' ASHeT,^ 'of the woman* or else 'of 
Ashtoreth;* the latter probably an after-corruption of the word. 

Orpheus is Abraham, ' the man of Ur' oi the Chaldees. Ur 
is also called Orfa, and Orphaios, means ' the man of Orfa,' or 
Ur. The late Dr. Wolff suggested this. 

The story of Orpheus going to the infernal regions to 
recover Eurydice, is a distortion of the story of Lot and his 
lost wife. 

The Greeks and Eomans had their Parkce, or Fates, 
derived from PeRuK,7 * to break, rend! They wove the thread 
of life and fate. Their names were Clotho, from CeEeTH,® 
* to cut off,' Lachesis, from LaQeSH,^ ' to crop, to gather,' and 
Atropos, from TeReP,^® ' to tear in pieces' The Greeks gave the 
last a Greek derivation ; to which I do not accede. 

The Muses are derived from M'OSaH,i ' to make,' answering 
exactly to the Greek Poieetees, ' a maker, or poet* 

'nj/T ^tinn. 'biv- *]na. ^dj;;. 
'nti/H^ini 'pna. 'my 'li/ph- '^jpio^ 'n^jjD- 



DERIVED FROM THE ENGLISH. 69 

The Sirens were female singers, who attracted seamen by 
their music, only to destroy them. It is, I believe, a distant 
reminiscence of the scene in Exodus xv, where the Egyptians 
followed the Israelites into the Eed Sea, and were swal- 
lowed up ; giving occasion to the songs and the dances of 
Miriam and her maidens. SEEREEN » in Hebrew means 
^female singers! 

Morpheiis was the son of Sleep, It signifies a ' healer ^^ from 

MOKPHA.2 

The infernal regions were called Erebus \ from 'EReB,* 

* the west, to be dTisky, a wildemess' It was also named Orctcs, 
not improbably from HoEoQ,* ' to gnash the teeth! In the 
regions below were the rivers Acheron, and Styx, (Genitive, 
Sty gas!) These are derived from HeEoN,^ * wrath! and 
ZeDiQ,6 'justice! * 

The other river Pyooriphlegethon, signifies in Hebrew, 
' river of fire :' PHaLeG, ' as tream! and B'0E,'7 ' to burn! The 
ferryman across the Styx was named CHaEoN, which also is 
derivable from the Hebrew for ' wrath." The sinner that 
iovichQ^ justice, (Styx,) will find wrath (Cliaron.) 

But there were also the happy fields of Elysium, from 
ELeTS,8 ' to rejoice.' 

May not the Hindoo Trinity of Brama^ Vishnoo, and Siva 
be traced in like manner ? Brama,^ 'the Creator,' from BEA, 

* to create ; ' Vishnoo, from 'ISHINOO,^® ' he made us,* the Oin 
preceded by the double gamma, becoming ' Fishnoo ;' and 
Siva, the Destroyer, from SOVaH,i ' to turn back,* in a bad 
sense. Their name of God, Etshwar^ derives evidently from 
EeSHaE, 'upright! 

* Hence the Latin Juddeo, ' to judge.' 

"Sin- 'Mrty;;. 'raw- "i^- 



60 THE ENGLISH LANGUAGE 



CHAPTER XIV. 

PROLIFIC ROOTS. 

Let us a moment look at some of the more prolific roots. 

1. Of these the most remarkable that I have met with is 
*OBeR,* 'to pass hy, or leyond! From it spring, Over, Ever, 
Every, Ferry, Ford, Anger, Orb, Umbrage, Hybrid, Inebriate, 
Iberi, Hebrew Avarice, ebwr, (ivory,) vapor, vafer, waver, 
imber, (a shower,) bring, uber, and, I think, Q,o^-v)hi'pper. 

2. From 'EEeB* spring, Erebus, Europe, Eve, Warp, 
Swarm, (?) Harp, Willow, Olive, (X) Herb, Raven, Robin, 
Earn, Orebe, Orobus, (vetch,) bail. From 'ORBOON" come 
Bargain, Pignora, (pledges,) Guarantee, Warranty, and 
Arrabon, (' pledge,') in Greek. 

3. From QeRN",* ' a horn,' arise Horn, Quern, Corn, Grain, 
Crown, Coronet, Cornet, Cornice, Cranium, Corner, Cornu, (a 
horn,) Carina, (a heel,) Crayon, Careen, Clarion, Kareena, 
(Greek, ' head,') and Culmen. 

4. From HoL^ * to pierce,' spring. Hole, Hill, Hull, Hell, 
Vale, viol, violate, with others. 

5. From PLaHH* we obtain Flitch, Flake, Fleece, Flock, 
(of wool,) Plough, Plank, 

6. From PHaReZH® 'to break, destroy! we gain Pierce, 
Prise, Plunge, Force, Forge, Freeze, Frost, Fierce, Ferox, 
Phrisso, (to dread,) Blast, Blustex, Burst, Briser, Bruise, with 
others. 

7. From GaRaP,^ * to snatch,' we have Gripe, Grip, Group, 
Grope, Grasp, Grapple, Grab. 

^-13;;. '3-);;. 'Y\'p> 'h^n *n^D. ^pjj. 'nj. 



DERIVED FROM THE HEBREW. 61 



CHAPTEE XV. 

DIFFICULTIES SOLVED. 

This key seems to me to unlock with ease difficulties hitherto 
not solved. 

1. What is the derivation of Ood and of Good? They 
both are the offspring of one root, — NeGeD.^ The meaning 
of 'eoccellent' points to our sense of Good; and the signifi- 
cation ' Prince,* tells us the origin of Ood, 

2. What is the derivation of Amspex or Haruspex ? — * A 
diviner who foretold the future from the entrails of beasts 
used in sacrifice.' Answer — from HaEeG,* * to slay,' and 
SQeP, ' to bend forward, to hang over.' Here the diviner's 
employment is exactly described. The Greeks retained the 
order of the letters in the latter word, as STceptomai, * to espy,' 
shows. The Latins preferred the order Specto. Thus out of 
Harug-skep springs Haruspex. 

3. The Latin pecora, * small cattle,' is easUy traceable to the 
Hebrew BeQoE,' ^ a herd of ox^n :' whence the Latin Vudgus 
and our Folk. The cognate -word, Pecudes, is traceable to 
PeQoD,* *to visit, to watch, to tend.* From the former word, 
too, comes Vacca, * a cow.' 

4. Our score, the Latin Historia, and the Greek cognate 
word all spring, as it appears to me, from STaCaE,^ or ZaCaE, 
*to record; ' the C being transformed in the Latin into H, and 
being set in the foremost place. 

5. Our word know, our kin, hind, and the Latin and Greek 
Gennao, (to beget,) Genus, Gyoonee, (a woman,) and so on, 
seem to rise easily out of QaNaH,® * to acquire, to possess.' So 



62 THE ENGLISH LANGUAGE 

Eve says, using this very word, " I have gotten a man, the 
Lord." 

6. Where the Greek derivations evidently fail, this gives a 
close and good signification. If we try the Greek as the 
source of the word * Crocodile' we should get its signification 
to be, 'fearing saffron.' But it really springs from COHH,' 
'a lizard, or more 'particularly, the chameleon* to which is 
added E by the Chaldee ; the latter portion is from GaDOLe, 

* great* Thence we derive, as its meaning, 'the great lizard,'' 
The derivation of Orcvs from the Greek, for an oath, is mani- 
festly inadmissible. Its derivation from HaRoQ, to grind 
the teeth, or from AEQ, 'the earth,' is regular, and gives a 
good sense. 

7. What is the origin of Bigot t It has proved itself a 
very difficult question. It takes its rise, I believe, from 
BiGaD,^ ' hypocrisy y deceit, treachery! Thence, too, arises our 
word Wicked, 

8. Whence the term Red Sea ? From the Hebrew EDOM, 
' red' because on it were the settlements of Esau the Edomite. 

9. Whence shall we derive our Foul, and Greek Faulos, 
(evil), together with the words of similar sound, yet of very 
different meaning. Foal, with the Greek Polos, (colt,) and the 
Latin Filius, (a son)? From two different senses of the 
Hebrew 'OUL,* which signifies both 'wicked' and *a suck- 
ling, a child.' The double gamma prefixed before Oin gives 
the F or P. Our * weal,' the result of a stripe, the Greek Oidee 

* a scar' and the Latin Vulnus, come from HoL, * to wound.' 



DERIVED FROM THE HEBREW. 68 



CHAPTEE XVI. 

CRUCIAL INSTANCES. 

It appears, then, to me, that the following conclusions will 
be borne out by evidence hitherto adduced, or by others to be 
alleged — 

I. That the Hebrew is the original language of men. 

1. This appears from the significance of the proper names of 
Scripture — a significance which would not hold good in other 
languages. Such are the names eve, signifying * Life ;' ISRAEL, 
signifying * Prince of God,' and so on. 

2. This seems proved, too, by the very remarkable ways 
in which the same Hebrew word makes its appearance in 
other languages. One people has taken it in one sense, and 
its letters in one direction, another has taken another sense 
of the word, and arranges its letters in another way. 

Take some examples. The Latin for white is Alhus* while 
in English we have Bleach, Blanch, and Blench. 

In Greek it is Lyookos. Now these so different words all 
issue from the Hebrew HaLeB,* which signifies *miUc,faV 
Both these are white, and other languages, leaving the primary 
signification of the Hebrew, have seized on the word to 
signify white. The Latin has dropped the aspiration at the 
commencement, as it generally does. The English has taken 
the letters in reverrse order, with the same sense, and thus we 
obtain our BLeaCH. Perhaps, also, this is the root of our Milk 
The Greek has changed the letter B into V, and takes the 

* There is also in Greek, 'Alphos, *a white disorder, leprosy.' 
Hence also the Alps, the snowy mountains. 



64 THE ENGLISH LANGUAGE 

other two consonants in the same order as ourselves. Is it 
not clear, from this example, which is the parent of all three 
so diverse forms ? Moreover, the Greek uses a word hence 
derived in another sense, and one nearer to the original mean- 
ing of the Hebrew. It has Aleipho, 'to anoint,' from the 
Hebrew sense of Haleb, 'fat* 

8. The Hebrew LeBeN^ is white, whence Lebanon, the 
snowy mountain. We use parts of the word in two ways. 
From the two last letters we derive the poetic ' wan* From 
the two first transposed we obtain 'pale.* And from the whole 
we gain ' Leper,* 

4. The Hebrew LaQeH ^ signifies ' to take,* It often drops 
the first consonant. We derive from it, thus mutilated, our 
Catch, From the two former consonants, omitting the third, 
we derive our Luck : and the Greeks their Langkano and 
Elengko, 

5. We have words of widely different sense derived from 
the Hebrew HHaEaM,^ ' to devote, to devote to destruction.' 
Thence come our Harm, Charm, and Carrion, 

6. Take the Hebrew 'OZHUM.* It signifies, ' bodily sub- 
stance, a bone ; also, ' the self-same' ' very I ' identical* Now, 
the Greek name of bone — OSTEON — comes from this. The 
Latins take up this sense in their Ossa, ' bones! But they use 
it in another form with another of the Hebrew senses, as 
Idem, 'the same* Examples have several times been ex- 
hibited, that D, or at least T, is the frequent rendering which 
the Chaldee gives to the Hebrew letter ZH. The Greeks 
further employ the word in its sense of 'body:* and thus 
arises S6MA. We use it in its sense of * very,' * identical,' 
in our words, SAME, SOME. Hence, also, is derived the 
Latin superlative, and the Greek-tsmi^g, ' the essence of a thing' 
or ' system.* 

7. Look at another common Hebrew word, GaDOL,*^ 'great* 
From it is derived one of the Latin words expressive of size, 
Longus, The letters are taken in reverse order, and LoDG is 



DERIVED FBOM .THE HEBREW. 65 

for euphony's sake converted into Jjong, This is the parent, 
too, of the Greek Megalos, 'grecU,' and the Scotch Muckle. 
The D — ^the great stumbling-block in any change of the 
the order of letters in this word — ^becomes M. 

This word gives birth, too, I believe, to the Italian Gondola, 
' the great boat.' Hence, too, our CvddU, ' to make much of; ' 
our Oreat, Greet, Gold, Guild, Long, and Large. In Great, the 
L becomes E, the D, T, and the order is changed. 

8. Take the Hebrew BeKiTH,* 'a covenant,' Hence we 
obtain the Latin FceDeEa, 'covenants.' Hence our words 
Brother, Barter, Bride, and perhaps Brit-ain, * Isle of (Baal) 
Berith/ Ain signifying * Island! 

9. Take the Hebrew GeEiB,« ' to scratch, scrape! Hence, 
with S prefixed, comes the Latin Scribo, ' to write! Hence the 
Greek Grapho, of the same meaning, and Gloopto, * to engrave.' 
Hence, also, our word Grave, (or 'engrave,') Grub, Groove, 
Gravel, and Scrvib, Scrape, Scrap, Does not this word teach 
us, that the primitive way of writing was by engraving on 
some hard substance ? Our 'write ' comes also from HeEiT,* 
' to engrave! 

10. Behold another set df transformations in 'OUE,* which 
signifies * to be naked, a shin, (or hide,) to dig! Hence the 
Greek OXJEA, a tail ; and the Latin Vellera, skms. Hence, 
too, our ' ore,* ' what is dug up ' — and, with the double ganmia, 
our Fur, Poor, and Bare, 

11. As an eleventh and last instance, take ZeE'O,® * to sow, 
to plant! Hence we derive the Latin Sero, and the Greek 
Speiro, 'to sow ;' hence, also, the E dropped, our Sow. As the 
Greek renders the Zain by SP, so does the English often ; and 
then we have spray, (two senses,) splay-footed; also, strow, 
strew, straw, stray, screw, and tree. From this comes, too, our 
scientific zero, a round 0, originally signifying ' a seed! Hence, 
also, our ' spring,* the sowing time. 

Let me now produce some examples from the English 
alone. There are in it such singular variations of derivatives 

*nna *mj. ^mn. m;;. 'ini 

K 



66 THE ENGLISH LANGUAGE 

from the very same word with senses nearly allied, that one 
thinks it can only be accounted for because different languages 
have joined to make up our present tongue. 

1. Thus we have the two words ACH, and ITCH, from the 
Hebrew ACH,^ ' to howl, to grieve' Thus the words ASH and 
WOOD, (Welsh Otvyz), spring from the Hebrew ' AZH,« ' a 
tree! Now this same Hebrew word might be pronounced 
' OZH, and ZH becomes by Chaldee T, while the Oin is very 
frequently expressed in English by W. Thence then we 
derive Wood, The Oin is also pronounced ft, and then you 
have the Welsh word. So we have ' to ?>ay,' and ' to hark* 
both from NeBaCH,3 'to hark! 

Again from CE*0,* *to bend', we have Crouch, and pro- 
bably Knee, Now the Oin, specially at the latter end of a 
word, has the sound NG, and hence we have Cringe, Crook, 
Crank, cringle, crinkle. Freak and Prank have a common 
original in PeEaK,® ' force, violence, a breaking out/ 

So we have both Oo, and Oan^ from NeG'O,^ ' to reach.' 

So Bird, and Sparrow, flow from ZHePOEJ The 
derivation of Sparrow has been already given. In BiED, the 
P becomes B, the ZH, D, the E alone remaining as it was^ 
while the order of the letters is inverted. 

Perhaps our Pigeon arises from this root We have seen 
that the Greek Peristera arises hence. The same word 
means a sharp point, and thence proceed. Juniper, Spv/r, and 
Spear. 

Thus Battle, Plait, Pleat, Braid, come from PaTtLe^ ' to 
twisty ' to wrestle.' Thus Basket, and Skep, (or Skip) — a pro- 
vincial word for a basket — come from ' SeBeK,^ ' to weave, to 
plait! Thus Drive, Parrot, Word, and Wild, flow from 
DeBeE,*® ' to speak, to drive, or lead, a wUdemess! In Word, 
the B becomes W, and the two other consonants are trans- 
posed : in Wild the E still further becomes, as so frequently, 

*ina. 'i^jj. 'niay. ^^na. 'laD. ^nm. 



DERIVED FBOM THE HEBREW. 67 

L. But I am only giving specimens ; to produce all the 
matter that has accumulated, would be to write a large 
volume. 

So rich is the soil, that not unfrequently one is in doubt, 
to which of two or three roots one ought to trace a word. 

Thus our 'Pet/ may spring either from NiPHeT,* 'Jumey,'^ 
and then the Irish * my honey* would find its parallel ; or 
from NePHeSH,« ' a soul' the S transformed by the Chaldee 
into T, the deciduous N being in both cases omitted ; or from 
BeT,* * a daughter. 

Thus Barrow, 'a burying place/ may be derived either 
from BOOE,* 'a pit,' or from QaBooE,^ 'to bury' the first 
letter omitted. From one of these comes our ' bury' So 
Grain, may be derived either from QaEN^ ' a horn,' or from 
GaEN',7 a threshing floor. So Carmine may find its origin 
either, as given above, from CaEMIL,^ or from AEGMOON.^ 
both of which signify 'red, crimson, or purple.' 

So Bad may be traced either to ' ABD,^® * a slave/ or to 
ABaD,i ' to destroy.' It has been observed, if I remember 
rightly, by Dr. Trench, that our Caitiff, derived from the 
Italian, which signifies ' bad/ is clearly traceable to the Latin 
' Captivus,' ' a captiva' Thus Parrot may spring either from 
DeBeE,* or from PaEoT,' — both would make it to signify 
* the talking bird." 

So too Steal may be derived either from SeTaE,* to hide, 
or from NeZHeL,* * to pluck away, to plunder/ the N being 
deciduous, as it is generally. I prefer the latter. 

So Window may take its origin from the word I have 
noticed in a previous paper, or from NeBaT,® ' to behold, to 
regard! Here the B would become W, the T, D. 

Thus again Fickle may be regarded as the daughter either 
of OQuU crooked, or of ' 0GL,8 'what rolls round, a wheel.' 

*ns3. *tya3. 'nn. ♦ma *-inp. 

'\yp' 'pj. •^D-i3. ^pDj-i«. "13;;. ^in«. «-aT 

'£o>3. *"inD. 'b^z^ ^1533. '^^]}^ 'bij:' 



68 THE ENGLISH LANaUAGE 

Our Club, clap, the Latin Clava, the Greek Skolops seem 
evidently to spring from the root CLaP,' * to beat, strike/ 

The French Grele, (hail) springs from one sense of GeEuL,* 
'a pebble ;' the Greek Clerus, * a lot/ from another of its signi- 
fications. 

The Greek Charasao, ' to stamp, to mark* and the English, 
* Harrow,' both arise from different senses of HaEaS,' * to cut 
into, to plough.* 

Worm, Vermis (Lat.), Helmin (Gr.), all are daughters of 
'OEeM,* 'naked/ 

To wail, and a vale both proceed from different senses of 
ABeL,* which means both * to mourn,' and ' a meadow* 

'^"2- •'nj- 'tnn- ♦mr- *'73«. 



DERIVED FBOM THE HEBBEW. 69 



CHAPTEE XVII. 



CONFUSION. 



But there is one great peculiarity which is perpetually 
occumHg, that has not been distinctly noticed yet. It is, 
however, of extreme moment. We learn from Scripture that 
originally all men spoke the same language, but that the 
Most High at Babel confounded men's speech, because of 
their presumption. Do we find any proofs of this ? Yes ! 
everywhere ! While in general we find order, in not a few 
places we come upon confusion. I will give examples. 

1. NeSeE* in Hebrew is an eagle ; the Latins have added 
an A to the commencement, and then we have Anser 
— ' a goose.' Alooph^ in Hebrew is an ox ; we have turned it 
into Wolf. Thence come the Latin Lupus, and Fz^Zpes— -'wolf,' 
and 'fox.' OTLaF^ is in Hebrew ' a bat '; it is the parent 
nevertheless of the Vulture, and not improbably, of our 
Antelope : though I have supposed another probable origin for 
it in my first paper. 

The dog is in Hebrew CaLB,* we have derived thence 
our Calf and the Latins their Golumba, *a dove.' 

DaG^ in Hebrew is fish : hence we obtain our Dog. We 
have seen in the first paper how our 'fish * arose. GOZaL ^ 
is in Hebrew *the young of a bird:* from it has sprung 
Gazelle. 

'iti/y '^tfii' '^b^a- ^Dhy '}% 'hm. 



70 THE ENGLISH LANOUAGE 

In Hebrew ZHAN * signifies ' sheep/ with us it has been 
degraded into Swine. SHaLO * is in Hebrew * the quail,* or 
* a goose :' we use the word to signify the Swallow, 

T'AN"* in Hebrew signifies the ostrich; we have pre- 
fixed an S, and apply it to the Swan, Y'AL* in Hebrew 
intends ' the chamois/ we have transferred the name to the 
whale, 

AEI* in Hebrew is 'the lion/ the Latins make of it 
Aries, 'a ram.^ *AED® in Hebrew is the ^wiH ass:* in 
Latin Ardea is the heron : we have derived thence, too, our 
Hem and Hart, 

I have supposed Eagle, in a former paper, to be derived 
from a word signifying 'devourer:' but it would more 
obviously spring, if sound be regarded, from 'EGL,^ ' a cal/,*^ 
In Hebrew LISe® means ' a lion / with us a troublesome insect. 

In Hebrew 'EL'O ^ means ' a rib ; ' we have taken the root, 
and make it mean elbow. In Hebrew GaCHiN »° means the 
'belly/ we take the word, omitting the first letter in order 
to have a monosyllable, and it becomes chine, and signifies 
the ridge of the back. 

Our Sltcg seems to claim as its root SLuC,* 'a sea-fowL' 
Whence comes our Seal i (the animal)? From SU*OL,* 'a 
jackal' 

The same confusion is evident in the vegetable kingdom. 
The lily, in Hebrew, is SUSaK* With us, changiDg the S 
into T, Tutsan, it means the St. John's wort. The orange 
seems to derive its name from AEoZ,* the cedar : the Dock 
from HaDDocK,* 'a thorn.' Almond is from 'AEMON,'« 
the plane-tree. 'Sweet Basil* from BAZAL,^ *an onion,' 
Samphire, a sea-plant, from SaNTHIR,® * the Jm of a fish* 
Bullace, from BuLaS,^ 'to gather figs, or sycamores. 
CHaEGaL,*® 'a hind of locttst* gives birth to our charlock, a 
wild mustard, infesting com fields. 

*]XV. M^tt^. ']V^' *^r- '^i«- 'ii;^- 'hiv^ 
'w^i' ^jhV' 'MnJ- '1^2^- 'b)r^ti;^ '\ii;w^ ♦hk. 
'pin. •lion?. ^^V3. 'Ta^D. 'D^3. "^j-in. 



DERIVED FROM THE HEBREW. 71 

COOS * in Hebrew is * the Owl ; ' we have turned it into 
the * goose* and the Scotch into the cushat. 

Milk and Milch, seem naturally derivable from MiLCH,* 
*salt.* The Latin Ga'put,* *the head/ is evidently from 
CaBoDe,* ' the liver! Our Snout seems certainly to have 
sprung from AZNOUT,* * ears: 

There are two instances so conspicuous, that to omit them 
would be a defect. Of all words in use the commonest in 
every home circle are Father ^ Mother, * Father* is reproduced 
in nearly all the languages by cognate sounds. Vater, Vader, 
Fader, Pater, Pateer, Padre, Pire, Padar, Pitar, Fedre, 
Batara. But PaTeE^ in Hebrew means *to cleave, split: 
' Mother is repeated in cognate sounds in nearly all languages. 
Moder, Moeder, Mutter^ Mateer, Mater, Madre, Madar, Nada, 
Mat, Mire: But MaTeR^ in Hebrew is * to rain: 

Yet our Papa and Mamma are derived from AB7 and AM® 
respectively. 

A house is in Hebrew BalTH : ' the outside' is H0UZH,9 
yet thence are derived our house and hutch Thence too the 
French Chez and Hors. 

The Latin Nohilis and our Nolle seem both derived from 
NeBeL,^® but in Hebrew it means *afooi: Perhaps, however, 
we should derive it from NePeL,* 'to falV This was the 
name of the Giants of Noah's day, (Gen. vi 4,) 'the men of 
renown ' of later times. *' 

Homer gives to his Agamemnon the name of " an Anak 
of men." Whence does this come but from the Anakim ^ 
of Scripture? 

• Prom ' Caput' springs our ' pate,' the omitted. 

'DID. •n'jD. »ni3D, 

♦m:m. »id3. *idd. '3K. 'dx. »fin. 



72 



THE ENGLISH LANGUAOB 



CHAPTER XVIIL 

ENGLISH EQUIVALENTS OF HEBREW LETTERS. 

I GIVE now examples of the way in which the Hebrew 
letters of the original roots are transferred into English. 

Each Hebrew root consists of three letters : as PaQaD. 
Hence I present instances showing first, how the Initial 
Radical — in this case P— is expressed in English; then a 
second series showing how the second letter, or Radical, is 
expressed in English. This I call the Medial Radical — in 
the case given, Q. Then follows a set of examples showing 
how the Final Radical is expressed in English. 





ALEPH in 


Hebrew answers 


to the English 

SBHSB OF HIBBBW, 


A. 


Ache . . 


nx 


Howl 




After . . 


inK 


After 




Alum . . 


CD^X 


Bind 


E. 


Earth . . 


px 


Earth 




Elf . . -^ 
Elvea . ) 


^)H 


Chief 




Evil . . 


^1« 


Folly 


I. 


Itch . . 


nx 


Howl 


U. 


Ulcer . . 


n7« 


Corrupt 




Urn . . 


P« 


Arh 


W. 


, Wend . ' 
Went . 


nnx 


Oo 




Wisp . . 


^IDN 


Gather 




Work . . 


J1K 


Weave 




Wench 


Bn3« 


Man 




BHETH in 


Hebrew answers 


to the English 


B. 


Bag . . 


pa 


Bottle 




Base 


D3 


Tread on 




Beacon 


ina 


Watch-tower 




Bilk . 1 

-Ronllr \ 


pVa 


Emjtty 



DERIVED FBOM THE HEBREW. 



73 



BETH in Hebrew answers to the English 



SENSE or HEBREW. 



.1 



Bin . . 
F. Flash . . 

Flagon . 

Flask 

Flesh . . 
L. Loathe 
M. Muster 
P. Pane . . 
Q. Quail . 

Quell 

Qualm . . 

Quash . . 
V. Vat. . . 
W. Wan . . 

Way . . 

Wear . . 

WeU . 

• 

Wicked . 



:} 



na 

n'73 
"rj3 



(Tr.) 



l8t letter 
omitted. 



Divide 
Flash 

Pour out 

Flesh 
To loathe 
Collect 
Cover 

Terror 

Loathe 

To trample ujpon 

A measure yV of homer 

To whiten 

Go 

Well 

Consume 

Deceit 



GIIVIEL in Hebrew answers to the English 

*1DJ Gopher 



C. Cypress 
{Kuwaptcrcros) 

Camel 

Coal 

Craw 

Crush 
G. Girl 

Glib 

Glide 

Groove 

Grub 

Grave 

GofforGolf 
K. Knab . ^ 

Knave . ) 
V. Vir . . 
W. Wallow . 



212 



A Camel 

Burn 

Throat 

Pound 

Portion 

Shave 

Smooth 

Scratch 



^J3 iBti. o. Stroke 
33J Steal 



n3J 



strong 
Boll 



74 



THE ENaiilSH LANGUAGE 



DALETH in Hebrew answers to the English 

T^ r\. 8KH8B OF HKBnBW. 

Death . \ ^^^ ^''^ 

Drop . . V'^ ^^^P 

Dash . . an Poimd 

T. Teat . . Til Teat 

Tier . . m Circle 



Ch. Charge 
Chatter 
Chopper 
E. Ebony 
H. Hark 
Haste 
Haulm 
Havoc 
Head 
Hand 
Holloa 
Hoot 
Ham 
Hash 



HE in Hebrew answers to the English 

Slay 
Boast 
Cut 
Ebony 
Meditate 
Ilaste 

Something broken 
Destroy 



:} 



j-in 
"iin 
"i3n 
prr 

Din 

V7n 

Tin 

nan 

on 



Stretch out 

Loud sound 

Hum 
Silence 



ZAIN in Hebrew answers to the English 



Sp. Sprinkle . 

Spin 
Z. Zero 

J. Jerk 
Jaw 



•) 



p-ir 
in 



Sprinkle 
Form 

Sow Strew 

Scatter 

Sway to am,dfro 



H [lETH in Hebrew answers to the English 



H. Addle . 

A. Arid 

B. Beat . 
0. Carp . 

Carrion 
Castra . 
Coarse 



3-in 

Bltn 

Din 

"ivn 

pn 



Fcuil 

Dry «p 

Beat 

Strip 

Cursed 

Place fenced 

Lumpg 



DERIVED FROM THE HEBREW. 



75 



HHETH in Hebrew aDswers to the English 









8BN8B OF HBBBVW. 


c. 


Carve . . 


nnn 


Knife 




Chalk . . 


P^n 


Smooth 




Cobble 


^2n 


Bind 




Cloy . . 


ain 


8ich 




Crack . . 


pm 


Creak 


Ch 


. Chaff . -) 
Chafe . 3 








"P 


Rub off 




Char . , 


in 


Burn 




Charm 


tiD-in 


Devote 




Chart . "> 
Charta . ) 








mn 


Engrave 




Chase . . 


a/n 


Haste 




Chaste 


TDH 


Pious 




Check 


IB^n 


Withhold 




Choke . 1 
Cheek . ) 








jTH 


Bosom 




Chord . , 


-nn 


Tremble 


D. 


Dregs . , 


pn 


Dregs 




Dusk . 


IB^n 


DarJe 


F. 


Ferment 


ran 


Ferment 


G. 


Gaze 


nm 


Behold 


H. 


Heart . 
Horrid . J 


-nn 


Flutter 




Hobble 


bin 


Bind 




Hoof . 


^n 


Cover 




Hook . . 


mn 


Hooh 




Hush . . 


nti/n 


Hush 


0. 


Old . , 


-6n 


Duration 


+ S. 


Sabre . . 


3nn 


Sword 




Shatter 


-inn 


Break through 


V. 


Vita . . 


n^n 


Vita 


w. 


W heat 


nnn • 


Wheat 




World . 


^'7n 


World 




Wrath . 


nin 


Wrath 




Write . 


mn 


Engrave 



76 



THE ENGLISH LANGUAGE 



TETH in Hebrew answers to the English 



D. Dabble. \ 

Dip 

Dive 

Dimple. / 

Dirt . . 

Drench 
T. Term . 'J 

Trim . J 

Thatch . 

Thick 

Thin . . 

Tower . . 

Tire . . 

Toss . \ 

Stress . ) 

Tuber , 



:] 



bits 

13C3 



SSVBS OF HBBBKW. 

Dip 

Mud 
Load 

Cutoff 

Cover 

Crush small 
Enclose 
Wear away 

Founce upon 

Navel 



TOD in Hebrew answers to the English 



A. 


Asia 






I. 


Issue 


xv** 


Go forth 


E. 


East . 






I. 


Irk 


np 


Difficult 


S. 


Save 


iJm^ l8t 1. O. 


Save 


V. 


Video . ' 


;;t 






uHw 


Know 


w. 


Wages . 


rr 


Agreed 




Wart . 


£01^ 


Perverse 




Wed . 


ir 


Betroth 




Whisk . 


pir 


Cast 




Wide . 


T 


Space 




Win 


nr 


Oppress 




Wine . 


r 


Wine 


Y. 


Year . 
Yore 


j nx*' 


River f floic 




Yell . 
Wail . 


j fr 


Wail 



DERIVED FBOM THE HEBREW. 



77 



YOD in Hebrew answers to the English 



Y. Yes 

Yest 
Yield 
Yolk 
Yellow 
Young . 



• • 



:) 



PT 



SEK8E OF HBBBXW. 
It 18 

White 
Bring forth 

Yellow 

Such 



CAPH in Hebrew answers to the English 



:l 



4" A. Agate . \ 

Achates ) 

C. Cable . . 

Caddy . 

Circle . 

KVIfXoS 

Club . 

Coat 

Coax 

Creek . 
Ch. Chisel . 
G. Glue 

Gelu Glu 

Gnat 

Griffin . 



J 



LAMED in Hebrew answers to the English 

np7istl.o. Take 
2^2*7 Clothe 



C. Catch 
Vest 

I. Inn 

L. Lackey 
Love 
Latch 
League 
Lung 

B. Bave 



ID 
1D"I3 



Agate 

Chain 
Bucket 

Circuit 

Hammer 

Coat 

Lie 

Surround 

Axe 

Restrain 

Gnat 
Cherubim 



2in 



Lodge 

Send 

Heart 

Join to 

Meditate 

Throat 

Stammer 



78 



THE ENGLISH LANGUAGE 



MEM in Hebrew answers to the English 



B. Bald 
Bed 
Mat 
Bit 
Bitter 
Blame 
Bowel 

M. Market 
Metal 
Mete 
Miss 
Muck 



SBirSB OF EBBBVW. 

Smooth 



:! 



noa 



Bed 



J no 3rdl. o. Bridle 



•nan 

ID 



Biiter 

Spot 

Bowel 

Barter 

Metal 

Measure 

Reject 

Bottennese 



NUN" in Hebrew answers to the English 



:! 



M. Maggot 

N. Nick 

Kn. Knock 

N. Name . . 
Nay . . 
Nasty . \ 
Nausea. ) 
Night . 1 
Nocte, Nuit) 
Notch . . 
Numb . • 

S. Sniff . . 



^2 



Plague 

Smite 

Say 
Deny 

Cast off 

Beat 

Cut in pieces 
Sleep 



21V2 (Tr.) Blow 



SAMECH in Hebrew answers to the English 



C. Cypher 
S. Sapphire 
Silt 
Single 
Slide 
Slip 
Slope 
Slap 
Shallop 
Sloop 






^^D 



Number 
Sapphire 
Fine flour 
Peculiar 
Leap 



Send headlong 



DERIVED FROM THE HEBREW. 



79 



SAMECH in Hebrew answers to the English 



Sore 
Sour 
Stem 
Stun 
Store 
Shelter. 
Swoop 
Sh. Shovel 
Shimmer ) 
Shiver ) 



-no 



SBlSrSB OP HRBBKW. 

Turn aside 
Block up 

Conceal 

Garry away 
Garry off 

Shiver 



OIN" in Hebrew answers to the English 



A. Add 

And 

Amass . 
Aile, Ala . 

Apron . 

Avast . 
Ang Angry . 

Ankle . 

Angle 

Anchor 
Ant Antler . 
E. Ever . 

Ear 



:i 



:i 



:■( 



Aro 

Elk 

Erebus . 

Europe 

Embers 
O. Over . 

Other 

Order 

Obedient . 
U. Umbrage . 
G. Gullet . . 



;! 

I . 



■0/ 

Dp;; 

"id;; 
3u; 

"lay 

3"ii; 

-is;; 
-aj; 

"iTi; 

■»3i; 



Add 

Load 

Mount up 

Bust 

Quit 

Angry 

Heel 

Crooked 

A rib 

Pats beyond 

Plough 



West 

Bust 

Cross 

Remain 

Arrange 

Slave 

Wrath 

Swallow 



80 



THE ENGLISH LANGUAGE 



OIN in Hebrew answers to the English 



Glum 
Grloom 
Gasp 
Gttmat. 
H. Herd 
Hay 
Hat 
Hide 
Harass 
Haggle 
Hearse 
Hank 
Hang 
Heifer 
Hate 
Hern 



:! 



Ardea 
4 F. Fashion 
4- V. Famulus 

Fount . 
W & Whelk . 

Wh. Wheel 
Whelp 
Warp 
Wrap 
Wane 

Y." Yet 
Yonder 
Yoke 



:1 



:! 

:) 



-nj; (Tr.) 

en;; 
■is;; 

TSMV 

3"u; 

njj; 
IP 

pTj; 



SINSB OP ESBBBW. 

Obscure 

Suffer 
Pillar 
Herd 
Heap 

SUjpjper garment 
Wra^ 
Terrify 
Twist 
Mattress, Bed 

Encompass 

Fawn 

Fly fiercely on 

Wild ass 

Make 

Toil 

Springs 

Stick to 

Boll 

Faint, Weak 

Woof 

Afflict 
Yet 

Straiten 



PI in Hebrew answers to the English 



B. Bulk 
Bit 
Petty 
Bounce 
Ballast 



:t 



D72 



Plump 

Piece 

Agile 
Adjust 



DEBITED FKOM THE HEBREW. 



81 



PI in Hebrew answers to the English 



P. 
F. 



Pillage 

Piece 

Fair 

Fag end 

Fig 

Finical 

Frisk 



• • 



• • 



'} 






8SVSB OF HEBREW. 

Tramjple 
Piece 
Fair 
Fig 

Educate delicately 
Leap over 



TZADI in Hebrew answers to the English 



:) 



;l 



4 A. Assembly 
Oh. Chirp . 
J. Joke 

Jolly . 
S. Scale 

Side . 

Sign 

Slash 

Sally 

Snap . 

Sneck . 

Snore 

Thunder 

Soot 

Sop 
St. Stark . 

Steal . 

Stuumer 

Sh. Sham . 
Shear 
Share 
Shore 
Sure 
Jeer 
Juro 
Ship 



( 



pnv 
rv7V 
7pv 

TV 

Tpya 
mv 

or IDT 



"nv 



^llf 



Army 

Chirp 

Johe 

Flourish 

A hag 

Side 

Sign, 

Attach 

Boll up 
Confine 

Roar 

Bum 

Flow 

Need 

Blunder 

Foliage 

Song 

Shadow 

Edge of weapon 



Boch 



Float 



M 



82 



THE ENGLISH LANGUAGE 



TZADI in Hebrew auswera to the English 



Shoal . 

T. Tabby . . 

Torch . . 
Z. Zany . . 
Zephyr 

KOPH in 

0. Call . . 
Cast . . 
Castas I 
Chaste j 
Cattle . . 
Cave 
Cap 
Cinnamon 
Coin 
Come . 

Ch. Chasm . 

G. Gain 



{ 



for ^av 
lav 



SKH8B CF HKBBBW. 



:1 



° 1 



yvyii 

Gore 
Grain . 
Gristle 

K. King . 

Know . 
Q. Quail . 
Qaandary 
Quit . \ 
Quite . i 



Hebrew answers 

bap 
naj? 

\)D2p 

1? 

Dip 
2ifp 

np 

•jcnp 
inp 

or ]n3 

njp 
•tip 



Dcp^fc 



CZcar 

Humble 

Quick 

to the English 

Truth 

Slay 

Hollow 

Cinnammi 
Forge 
Arise 
Cut down 

Acquire 

Big 

Horn 

Ankle 

Prince 

Acquire 
Call 
Bark 
Cutoff 



EESH in Hebrew answers to the English 
L. Lacker I^PT Overlay 

Lash . . )[3*l Halter 

I Un Oreen 



Lane 



DEBTVED FBOM THE HEBBEW. 



83 



EESH in Hebrew answers 


to the English 






8BVSS OF HBBBBW. 


Leak 
Bake . 


} P^T 


Em^ty 


Leasing 


j/an 


Wicked 


Lie 


ifi 


Evil 


Lift . 


•721 


Uphold 


Link 


P"> 


Thin 


Lo 


n»T 


Look 


Loll 


'jn 


Reel 


Long . 


niji 


Desire 


Lust 


nvT 


Delight 


B. Baft . 






Bivet . 


•731 


Bind 


Pairrto . J 






Bay . 


n«i 


See 


Beck 


pi. 


Empty 


Beel 
Boll 


hai 


Reel 


Begulatio] 


1 h:i 


Foot 


Bip . , 
Bive . j 


nan 


Loosen 


Bash . 


yM 


Bush 


Bubbish 


ti/sn 


Mi/re 


W. Worse . 


WTi 


Poor 


Wr. Wrangle 


iDl 


Traffic 


Wreak 


pi 


Empty 


Wretch 


an 


Poor 


Wriggle 


hii 


Foot 


Wrong 


iJM 


Evil 



SCHIN in Hebrew answers to the English 
S. Scene . j ^^^ 



Skene 

Shell 

Sever 

Sip 

Sup 



Ptr 

ina; 



Dwell 

Knife 

Shell 

Break 



84 



THE ENGLISH LANGUAGE 



SCHIN in Hebrew answers to the English 



snraa or mmkmmw. 



Sir 


le; 


Lord 


Sit 






Set 






State . 
Site 


ntr 


Place 


Seat 






Sedeo . 






Skin . 


PB' 


Dwell 


Sob 


^m 


Pant 


Sod 


mtr 


Chround 


Squat . 


tflpa' 


Best 


Suck . ^ 


! nps; 




Soak . 


Drink 


Sucous . . 




Supple 


hQ2f 


Subdue 


Shaft . 


toatr 


Staff 


Shank . 


pic 


Leg 


Sh. Shelf . ^ 
Slab 


a'^tf 


Slab 


Shivers 


12a; 


Break 


Shy . 


natt; 


Turn oAJoay eyes 


T. Trump . 


naity 


Trump 


TAUin 


I Hebrew answers 


to the English 


T. Time . 


can 


Complete 


Tap . 






Tip 






Thump . 


^^ ^^^ 




Type . 


f\n 


Strike 


Timbrel 






Drum . 






Teem . 


. 


Twins 


Team . 


j DKn 


Double 


Th. Thaw . 


Trn 


Perish 


Thrive . 


fpn 


Live comfortably 


Throne 


in 


Banner 


Through 


jnn 


Gate 



DEBIVED FBOM THE HEBREW. 



85 



SECOND RADICALS OR MEDIALS 



ALEPH in Hebrew answers to the English 







8EH81I OF HSBBBW 


A. Name . 


QK3 


8ay 


Bay . 


nan 


8ee 


E. Well . 


■|«3 


Well 


Ee. Sneer . 


■ISJ + s. 


Reject 


Ou. Tour . 


■i«n 


Circuit 



BETH in Hebrew answers to the English 



B. Babbet 

F. Baft 

M. Temple 
After s.N. Snail . 
„ W. Swell . 

P. Nipple 
Spero . 

V. Aver 
Cavil . 
Bivet . -^ 
Bevdtir ) 
Sever . | 
Shivers j 



13T 

hip 

13-1 

(French) 



Bind 

Rift 

Dwell 

Snail 

Grow 

Bottle 

Hope 

Strong 

Oppose 

Bind 
Break 



Rise 



6IMEL in Hebrew answers to the English 

After S.C. Scab 

Skip 

Wicked . U3 Deceive 

G. Maggot . }!22 Plague 



■] 



221' 



86 



THE ENGLISH LANGUAGE 



DALETH in Hebrew answers to the English 



D. Fiddle- ) 

faddle . ) 
L. Cleave (Tr) 
N. Enough 
R. Beryl . ) 

Pearl ) 
T. Butter . 

Fat 

Chatter 

Stop 

Stifl . 

Stuff . 

Stifle . 
Th. Nether . 

Nadi 

Other 



;} 



'713 


8RVSK OF HKBRBW 

Divide 


pai 


Cleave 
Abundant 

Beryl 


ma 


Fat 


nn 


Large 



her . I 

lir . I 






Blast 



Drop down 
Remain 



HE in Hebrew answers to the Enslisli 



A. Pale 
Pane 
Quail 
Quell 
Shame . 

Ee. Deer 

Gh. Light . 



• t 



:1 



br}2 
inn 

Sin 



nr 
-im 
ton? 



Fear 

Cover 

Fear 

Loathe 
Bound 
Fire 



VAU in Hebrew answers to the English 



Au. Maul 

Mawkish 
O. Come . 

Doat 

Home . 

-Lot 

Mock . 

Nozzle 

Shove . 

Sock 



mo 



I' 
in 



Cut down 

Fat, Rich 

Arise 

Love 

Wall 

Wrap up 

Moch 

TricyJcle 

Drive hack 

Leg 



DERIVED FROM THE HEBREW. 



87 



VAU in Hebrew answers to the English 



O. Sore . . 

To.morrow 
Oo. Book . 

Coop . 

Boom . 

Clown . 

Cowl . 

Tower . \ 

Tour . I 

Turn . j 

Ow. Burrow \ 

Barrow ) 

U. Blush . . 

Gush . . 

Muggy . 

Bush . . 

Ui. Quite . . 

V. Biver . \ 

Bivus . ) 

We. Sweat . \ 

Exude . j 

Wi. Swift . . 

Switch 



TP 

ana 
nij 

ym 

TIT 

mr 



ssxrss or hbbbsw. 

Turn 

Yesterday 

Boll 

Surround 

Lift up 

Despise 

Fold 

Go round 



Pit put last. 

Blush 
Burst forth 
Melt 
Bush 
Cutoff 

Water 

Swell 

Whirlwind 
Move 



:l 



30 



To lie 



ZAIN in Hebrew answers to the English 

S. Gossip . 
Cozen 

Bask . . pT3 Disperse 

Mask . . nJO Qird on 

Z. Nozzle . ^nj TricTcU 

HHETH in Hebrew answers to the English 

Oh. Lecher . -XTw ^^*^ 

Dg. Fidget . TTHD Agitate 

Ft. After . . j , 2!]^ ^/<er 

( also If^ii 



88 



THE ENGLISH LANGUAGE 



HHETH in Hebrew answers to the English 

8BV8K OF BBBRKW. 



H. 


Shell . . 


'yntt^ 


Shell 


C. 


Beacon 


in3 


Watchtoiver 




Scathe 


nncy 


Destroy 


K. 


Skiff . . 


^nu; 


Thin 




Sky . . 


tia^ntr 


Shy 


W. 


Swart . 
Obsoure 


-intr 


Blach 




TETH in 


Hebrew answers 


to the English 


D. 


Body . . 


lt03 


Belly 


T. 


Buttock . 


nto3 


Best on 




Button 


]ID2 


Body 




Metal . ) 


haD 


Metal 




McraAAor ; 


# ^^ '^^ 






Steep . . 


vpa; 


Itush swiftly 



YOD in Hebrew answers to the English 

Ee. Reek . . H^l Odour 

I. Strife . . 'yr\ Strife 

CAPH in Hebrew answers to the English 

C. Scald . 
Ch. Biches 



K. Token . 
Skill . 

LAMED in Hebrew answers to the Enjilish 



D. Kidney 
L. Blade . 

Callipers 

Flake . 

Flock . 

Help . 

Slab . 

Slack . 

Slip 

Slope 



1 



orjpri 

73ty 



Bereave 
Acquire 
Set up 
Establish 
Be wise 



:1 



iT'^O Kidney 

T^a Cut 

mQ7D Axe 

H/D Slice 

172 Circuit 

C^7n Renew 

37tt^ * Ledge 

rVtL' Let go 



^D 



Send headlong 



DERIVED FROM THE HEBREW. 



89 



MEM in Hebrew answers to the English 

SBKSB or HRBBRW. 

Tread down 

Rise up 

Ferment 

Bung 

Stand 

Ear of corn 

Cutoff 



M. Bummage 


DDH 


Smoke 


HDV 


N. Change 


pn 


Dnng . , 


pa 


Stand . . 


ini^ 


Kernel 


7Dn3 


Stunt . . 


riDif 



NUN in Hebrew answers to the English 

L. Filth . . P|30 (Tr.) Soil 

M. Tamper ^3D Tamper 

E. Grape . . ^3^ Grape 

SAMECH in Hebrew answers to the English 
S. OoBset . . *7Dn Favour 



OINin 


Hebrew answers 


to the English 


A. Malfe . . 


hi}D 


Treachery 


Aw. Maw 


nj/D 


Bowels 


Thaw . 


nj;n 


Perish 


Laugh 


?^^ 


Test 


Brawl . 


h}}-s 


Twmult 


ing.New- 
fangle . 


h))^ 


Make 


Mangle 


IJ/o 


Squeeze 


Ea. Squeak 


•5j;t 


Gall out 


Bear . 


Tj;3 


Brute 


Reel . . 


hiJ-s 


Reel 


I. Mite . 


WD 


Small 


Bevel . , 


Tumult 


Tear . 


-)j;n 


Razor 


Peal . 


*7j;q 


Work 


0. Pore . 


-);;d 


Open 


Boar . 


-)j;3 


Brute 


Moth . . 


£oj;d 


Small 


O. Drop . 


. py;-| 


Drop + D 



N 



90 



THE ENGUBH LAMGUAOE 



OIN in Hebrew answers to the English 



Shower 
Moil . 
Oo. Boor . 
Boot 
Tool 
Boom . 






BKVBS OF BBBRXW. 

Shower 

Toil 

Boor 

Tread down 

Razor 

Bell 



PI in Hebrew answers to the English 



B. Jabber 
Ch. Ochre 
F. Coffer 

Sapphire 

Shuffle 
P. Couple 

Spill 

Spoil 
V. Cover 



11 .| 



1DV 



Chirp 

Reddish 

Somethvng covered 

Sapphire 

Contemptible 

Double 

Throw down 

Cover 



TZADI in Hebrew answers to the English 



S. Beason 

Sh. Cashier 

St. Fester 

Pester 

Muster 



:l 



1)12 



Pleasure 
Cutoff 

Urge 

(father in 
Watch 



KOPH in Hebrew answers to the English 

Ck. Racket TfpT Bound 

K. Skid . I ^ Fasten 

Scud . / » Sleepless 

Teh Satchel ^pV A bag 

EESH in Hebrew answers to the English 

N. Bunch. . ma J^'f^d 

E. Brick . . p^2 Flvnt 

R. Brook . . 113 Pool 

Cream . . CSID Cover over 



DERIVED FBOM THE HEBREW. 



91 



EESH in Hebrew answers to the English 



:1 



R. Gripe 
Grab 
Shred . \ 
Sherd . 1 
Trap 
Turf 



:) 






8BHSE or KBBBBW. 



Orasp 



Bemnant 



Tear 



SHIN in Hebrew answers to the Englis 



Oh. Chisel . 
J. Cajole . 
S. Husk . 
St. Listen . 
Teh Butcher 






Aze 

Beduce 

Preserve 

Tongue 

Flesh 



TAU in Hebrew answers to the English 



D. Bode . 
Swaddle 
Huddle 
Addle . 

T. Settle . 
Stool . 
Still . 
Shatter 
Stack 
Stock 
Stem 
Store 



} 



:! 



br\n 
hnn 

anty 
mo 



Open 

Swathe 

Deceive 

Plant 

Cleave 

Btill 

Stop 
Conceal 



n 



THE ENOLIBH LANOUAOB 



THIKD RADICALS OR FINALS. 



ALEPH Fiual in Hebrew answers to the English 



• / 



A. Asia 
Aw. Claw 
D. Breed . \ 
Th. Birth 
Ew. Brew 

Crew . 
Ow. Crow . 

Tallow 

Oy. Cloy . 

Ue. Issue . 
Y. Cry . 

Decay . 

Way . 



iXip 

«7p 
»-)p 

»^3 



8BVSB or HKBBBW. 

Oo forth 
Restrain 

Create 

Call 
Craw 
Adhere to 

Sick 

Oo forth 
Cry 
Break 
Enter 



BETH Final in Hebrew answers to the English 



B. Curb 

Slab 

Shelf 
D. Arid . 

Broad . 

Niggard 
F. Laugh 

Strife . 
L. Aukle . 
M. Chasm 

Flame . 

Swarm 



:! 



a-ip 
am (Tr.) 

3yp 

an-? 



Bring near 

Ledge 

Dry 

Broad 

Dry 

Ridicule 

Strife 

Heel 

Cut 

Flame 

Swarm 



DERR1ED FBOM THE HEBREW. 



98 



BETH Final in Hebrew answers to the English 









8BNSR OF HBBBRW. 


N. Cozen . 




3T3 


Lie 


Organ . 




22iJ 


Pipe 


P. Cusp 




a!fp 


* Cut 


Earope 




i^a 


West 


Hasp . 




ajyn 


Contrive 


T. Rickets 




3p-| 


Bot 


Y. Carve . 




ann 


^ Sword 


Shove . 




31D 


Draw back 


Strive . 




an 


Strive 


Live 
Love 


1 


2b 


Heart 


GIMEL Final in 


Hebrew answers to the English 


Dge Sledge 




:h^ 


Draw out 


Gr. Charge 




:in 


Slay 


Drag . 




:b^ 


Draw out 


Hog . 




njn 


Orunt 


Magi 




JD 


Magician 


Sag . 




PD 


Sag 


Ght Bright 




^•73 


Bright 


K. Hark . 




niJi 


Ponder 


Work . 




jnx 


Weave 


DALETH Final in 


Hebrew 


answers to the English 


D. Blade . 


• 


T7a 


Cut 


Caddy . 
Cadas . 


i 


ID 


Vessel 


Crowd . 




nn 


Hurry 


Pard . 




na 


Mule 


Boad . 




"n-i 


Bove 


Shred . 




uti; 


Bemnant 


Skid . 




ipo^ 


Bind on 


N. Heron . 




mv 


Wild ass 


T. Bigot . 




1J3 


Wicked 


Chaste 




Ton 


Pious 


Cosset . 




ion 


Favour 


Doat . 




Til 


Love 



94 



THB ENGLISH LANGUAGE 



DALETH Final in Hebrew answers to the English 







8SV8S or HVBBKW. 


T. Fact 


ipa 


Visit 


Fright 


ina 


Fright 


Gamut 


iQi; 


Pilla/r 


Mete . 


ID 


Measure 


Part 


•na 


Separate 


Picket . 


ipa 


Appoint 


Bafb 
Buff 


. 121) 

pawrtt) 


Bind 


Backet 


iri 


Bound 


Spirt . 


1-13 


Scatter 


Teat . 


IS/ 


Breast 


Yet . . 


Ty 


Add 


HE Final 


in Hebrew answers to the EngUsl 


A. Pacha . . 


nna 


Oovemor 


Aw. Craw . . 


rn: 


Cud 


Draw . , 


nhi 


Draw 


Ea. Plea 


nSa 


Intercede 


le. Die 


ni 


Sick 


K. Beak . 


na 


Mouth 


N. Cabin . . 


nnp 


Hollow 


Kiln . 


Hr> 


Boast 


Shine . . 


r^T]'^ 


Shine 


0. Lo 


nsT 


Look 


Ow. Know . 


rpp 


Acquire 


E. Wear . 


Hri 


Old 


T. Ferret . . 


ma 


Mouse 


Gibbet 


n3J 


Lift up 


Guest . . 


nw 


Bestow benefits 


Lust . . 


nn 


Pleasure 


Bant . . 


nai 


Shout 


Sift . . 


naif 


Look for 


Suit . . 


mty 


Equal 


Swift . . 


naiD 


Whirlwind 


Twist . . 


mi3 


Twist 


Th. Death . . 


m 


Sick 



DERIVED FBOM THE HEBBEW. 



95 



HE Final in Hebrew answers to the English 







■■HSB or HXBBBW. 


Y. Coy . . 


nw 


Rebuked 


Ray . . 


n«T 


Look 


Silly . . 


rrfo; 


Careless 


Spy . . 


nav 


Watch 


Stray . . 


nan 


Wamder 


ZAIN Final 


in Hebrew answers to the English 


S. Bounce 


ra 


Leap 


Lose . \ 






Loss . > 


n^ 


Depar 


Loose . ) 






Sparse . 


na 


Separate 


Sh. Gash . 


TJ 


Cutoff 


HHETH Fini 


al in Hebrew answers to the English 


Ch. Ach . . 


n» 


Howl 


Brooch 


n-i3 


Stretch across 


Broach . \ 
Perch . j 


ma 


Break forth 


Milch . , 


n^D 


Salt 


Niche . . 


nj 


Place of rest 


Notch . 


nnj 


Cut 


Patch . 


nDDi«ti.o. 


Add to 


Dge. Bridge 


n-13 


Stretch across 


Ck&K. Flake . 


. nSa 


Piece 


Mask . 


HTD 


Bind on 


Milk . 


niD 


Milk 


Paddock 


nna 


Open 


Beek . 


nn 


Odour 


Sink . 


njv 


Sink 


Slack . 
Slake . 


n^a^ 


Loosen 


Smack 


noa^ 


Joy 


Ght Night . 


nj 


Night 


L. Smile . 


nDo; 

• 


Joy 


Ow. Callow 


n'7J 


Naked 



96 



THE ENGLISH LANGUAGE 



HHETH Final in Hebrew answers to the English 



Sh. Gush . 


m 


8KHSB OF HBBBBW. 

Break forth 


Lush 


■ i-^ 


Moist 
Moist 


Marsh . 


nio 


Salt 


T. Pant . 


ma 


Puff 


Waft . ^ 
Whiff . . 


[ nsi'' 


Breathe 


Th. Breath . 


m-) 


Wind 


Mirth . 


• 


Joy 


Teh Catch . 


np7 


Catch 


Flitch . 


ma 


Slice 


Latch . 


n"? 


Board 


Y. Jolly . 


n*?:; 


Thrive 


TETH Fina 


I in Hebrew answers to the Englisli 


D. Shield . 


£0'7B' 


Shield 


K. Lurk P 


toi*? 


Conceal 


T. Brittle 


D-ID 


Break 


Colt . 




Dwarf 

• 

Shrink up 


Clot . 
Curdle . - 


d7p 


Grate . 






Crate . 


D"in 


Long hag 


Cruet . 






Pelt . 


toSa 


Smooth 


Halt . 


t07n 


Cut off 


Light • 


tfln? 


Flame 


Lot . . 


DT? 


Secret 


Melt . ) 
Moult . j 


d7D 


Slip away 


Moot 


{D}D 


Move 


Quilt . . 


£D7p 


Shrink up 


Shaft . . 


Dia; 


Sf-aff 


Smite . . 


DDjy 


. Throw down 


Sultan . . 


1D*7B' 


Sovereign 


Squat . . 


Dpty 


Best 


Vault . . 


aia 


Cover with cloud 


Wart . . 


D7n 


Perverse 


Teh Clutch . . 


Clutch 



DERIVED FROM THE HEBREW. 



97 



YOD Final in Hebrew answers to the English 



SnSB or HSBBKW. 



Ee. Glee 


'J^J 


Joy 


Y. Ahoy . 


^^n 


Ho! 


Berry . . 


nQ 


Fruit 


Dry . , 


^v 


Dry + E 


Fry . , 


na 


Offsprmg 


Hoary . , 


mn 


White 


Sky . . 


crpnt^ 


Sky 


Why . , 


iT« (Tr.) 


Where 



ifo; 



CAPH Final in Hebrew answers to the English 
G. Slag . I 
Slmg . I 
Ck. Brook . . f 13 



K. Speak . 

M. or P. Plump . 

T. Paint . 

Pigment . 

Pingo . 



Cast away 

Pool 
Pour out 
Botmd 



TQ 



LAMED Final in Hebrew answers to the English 



;} 



D. Shade 
Shadow 

L. Angle . . 
Beetle . 1 
(Instrument)) 
Call . . 
Scale . . 
Shackle . 
Spill . I 
Shuffle. ) 
Tall . . 



Tna 



Shade 

Crooked 

Wrestle 

Voice 

Weigh 

Bind 

Throw down 

Low 

Hill 



MEM Final in Hebrew answers to the English 

B. Hubbub IZDOn Boar 

MB. Numb . . 013 Sleep 

''^"^^ ;^ ] CDinn neep 

o 



Tumulus 



98 



THE ENGLISH LANOUAOE 



MEM Final in Hebrew answers to the English 



Womb 
M. Charm 
Cream . 
Tame . 
Worm . 



;i 



N. Arrant . 

Carrion 

Griffin . 

Main 

Stone . 

Stun 

Twin 

Twain 
E. Clutter 

Eoar 
T. Foot . \ 

voScf 

Pedes 



bin . ) 



n 



aw 



□on 
am 



8BV8S OF HIBBCW. 

Conceive 

Curse 

Cover over 

To reduce to stillness 

Naked 

Crafty 

Cursed 

Cheruhvnt 

Waters 

Strong 

Obstruct 

Twin 

Restrain 
Boa/r 

Foot 



NUN Final in Hebrew answers to the English 



M. Bottom 
Deem 
Doom 
Fathom 
Lissom 

N. Care 
Cane 
Fin 
Groan 
Kin 
Kine 
Sin 

E. Lecher 



;i 



]D3 


Body 


TT 


Judge 


]n« 


Step 


]t^7 


Tongue 


P 


Nest 


np 


Cane 


ia 


Turn 


]"|J 


Throat 


nap 


Acquvre 


n3T 


Fornicate 


in*? 


Lustful 



DERIVED FROM THE HEBREW. 



99 



SAMECH Final in Hebrew answers to the English 

SKN8X OF HBBBXW. 

Cn^ Break 



:) 



Ce. Fierce 
Pierce 
Piece . 
Place . 

Ge. Bummage 

Se. Crease 
Creese . 
Cross 

Ze. Sneeze 



^i 



.1 



DD1 
Dip 
Dipj 

Dia + s 



Piece 
Adjust 
Tread down 
Bend 

Curved knife 

Sneeze 



Om Final in 

A. 8pa 
£a. Sea 

Flea 
Ay. Flay 

Stray 
Ag. Crag 

Bag 
£e. See 

Free 
Ear Swear 
£n. Seven 
In. Pumpkin 
Inge Fringe 

Cringe 

Swing . 
O. Zero 
Ow. Strow . 

Sow 

Ei8cfl0 

Video . 

Idea 
Out Shout . 

Pout . 
Ouch Crouch 
Ank Crank . 
Ough Through 

Ovpa Door 



Hebrew answers to the English 

Overflow 

Swing to and fro 
Flea 



tw?nD4thi.o. 
inp 



am 



Uncover 

Stray 4 S and B 

Bend 

Bend 

See 

Lawless 

Swear 

Seven 

Gourd 

Free 

Bow down 

Swing 

Seed 

Strow 

Sow 

Know 

Shout 
Swell up 
Bow down 
Crank 
Gate 



100 



THE ENOUSH LANGUAGE 



OIN Final in Hebrew answers to the English 



nmsm of hxbeiw. 



Ot. Maggot 
Ung Long . 
Ue. Sue 
Ble. Quibble 
Wrinkle 



17 



Plague 

Throat 

Regard 

Deceive 

Overla/y 



:t 
1 



PI Final in 

B. Club 
Clap 

F. Cuff 
Cup 
Knife , 
Scurf P 
SurfP 

M. Drum 

P. Crop 
8ip 
Slap 
Slip 
Whelp . 
Ough Bough . 
Slough 
Trough 



in' 
ii2p 

Hebrew answers to the English 

n'jD Strike 

n^ Hollow Hand 

Cut down 



.1 



:! 



TZADI Final 

Ce. Dance 
Juice 

SUCCUB 

Force . 
Ch. Crunch 

Quench 
Ge. Change 

Pillage 

Ravage 
8e. Bruise . 

Wise 
Sh. Crash . 

Flush . 



e)-in 

T 

in Hebrew answers to the English 



Pv/rge 

Tap 

Strip 

Lip 

Send headlong 

Faint 
Break 

Draw off thoe 
Feed 



P 

piv 

pa 
PP 

P 

i6d 
pa 
pa 

pn 
V?a 



Dcmce 

Frees 

Break 

Bite 

End 

Ferment 

Trample 

Destroy 

Break 

Ootmsel 

Cut short 

Terror 



DERIVED FBOM THE HEBBEW. 



101 



TZADI Final in Hebrew answers to the English 



Sh. Hash . 

Harsh . 

Mash 

Push . 

Bash . 

Bosh . 

Smash . 
Ss. Press . 
Sses. Molasses 
St. Burst . \ 

Blast . ) 

Ze. Freeze . 

Quiz . 
Baze . 



nvn 
pn 

P 



SnrSB OF KSBBSW. 

Divide 
Dregs 
Mash 
Shake 

Bun 

• 

Bush 
Thrust 
Urge 
Sweet 

Burst 

Burst 
Expand 
Harass 
Crush 



KOPH Final in Hebrew answers to the English 

p2 Sottle 



G. Bag . . 

Fog . . 

Jug . . 

Sprig . . 

Young . \ 

Younker ) 

Gh. Neigh . . 

Ght. Bright . . 

Straight . 

H. Flash . . 

K. & Gk. Bask . . 
Bracken 
Brake 

Break . . 



■I 



Bleak . 
Black 
Creak . 
Croak 



:1 
:} 



pir 
pis 

pr 
pm 

pTV 
PT3 

"•apia 
pis 

p-in 



Effusion 
Pour out 
Break off 

Suck 

Bray 

Glitter 

True 

Lightning 

Bask 

Thorns 

Break 

Desolate 

Onash 



102 



THE ENGLISH LANGUAGE 



KOPH Final in Hebrew answers to the English 



Gk. Lick . 
Muck 
Sack 
+ W. Wreck . 
Shriek . 
Sleek . 
Soak 
Wreak . 

T. Wort . 

Th. Broth . 



p-iif 

r 

pIT 

pna 



BMnam OF 

Lick 

Botten 

Sack 

Empty 

Whistle 

Comb out 

Water 

Empty 

Oreen 

Broth 



EESH Final in Hebrew answers to the English 



L. Circle . 

Kettle . 

Turtle . 
N. Champion 

Fawn 
R. Pair 

Pore 

Sere 
Ploughshare 



mmn 

IQj; (Tr) 
ID 



Round 

Utensil 

TivrtU 

Cover 

Fawn 

Divide 

Open 

Vile 

Cleave 



SHIN Final in Hebrew answers to the English 



Ch. Wench . 

After E. Ge. Forge . 

S. Chouse 

Prance . 

Biches . 
St. Test 

White 
Sh. Brush . 

Thrash . 
X. Coax 

Pellex . 

Ze. Furze . 



it . I 
ite . ) 



:) 



Bn3K 

tyna 
anna 



Man 

Lie 

Horse 

Riehet 

WhiU 

Fir 

Thrash 

Lie 

Concubine 
Fir 



DERIVED FROM THE HEBREW. 



103 



THAU Final in Hebrew answers to the English 







8RN8S OF BSBBEW. 


T. Bit . . 


riQ 


Bit 


Dolt 
Fleet . 


nil 
r\7a 


Door 
Bun 


Kite . 
Set . 


nxp 


Peli4ian 


Sit . . 


nit/ 


Set 


Sedeo . ^ 
Silt . . 


rho 


Flour 


Stunt . 


nna 


Cutoff 


Th. Berth . ^ 
Booth . . 


TV2 


House 


Sheath . 


jy^tt/ 


Put on 



VAU (omitted above.) 



Ow. Barrow 
Sparrow . 
To-morrow 

Ue. Queue . 
Cue 



le . \ 



ma 



ip 



Sparrow 
Yesterday 

Line 



104 



THE ENOUSH LANQUAOB 



CHAPTER XIX. 



OMITTED RADICALS. 

Let us now look next at some cases in which one or more 
of the three Hebrew Radicals has been lost in some words 
derived from them. I give examples as before, first of the 
omission of the Initial Eadical, then of the second, or Medial, 
then of the third, or Final To me many seem very interesting. 



OMISSION OF THE INITIAL EADICAL. 







8KHSB OF HIBSKW 


Vulgar Az. Afik . 


t^pa 


Petition 


Leg . . 


ir 


To walk 


1 
Mute . . 


lor TV^a 


To silence 
Death 


Frog . 


i^nav 


Frog 


Prong . 


ll-IQV 


Point 


S. Quiet . 


copty 


Beet 


Hair . . 


TTB^ 


Hadr 


Chough 


^nti; 


Sea-gull 


Bet . . 


coqj; 


Pledge 


Bury . 

Kpinmt . 


^2P 


Bury 


Jug . . 


pir 


Pov/r out 


Dim . . . 


ain; 


Blight 


Meadow . 


HDTty 


Field 


Muiih . . 


noa^ 


Joy 


Folly . . 


?ari 


Insipid 


Eaid . 1 
Boad . 






T1^ 


Bring down 



DEBIVED FBOM THE HEBBEW. 



105 



.i 



Leave 
Bat . 
Sheep 
Griddle 
Girdle 
Baieins 
Loins 
Lip . 
Lap 
Patch 
Take 
Peep 
Beed . 
Binse . 
Phial . 
Simpula > 

Vine . . 

Vest . . 

Catch 

Luck 

Wan . 

Thieve . 

Beap 

Carpo 

Mire 

Beat 

Loose 

Wash 






:) 



:1 



nao 

Dp"? (Tr.) 

^^ 
Tin 

np"? 
B)nn 

-ion 
toan 

l6n 



8<V8> OF HKBRKW. 

Pose by 

Staff 

Lamb 

Basin 

Sour grapes 
Loins 

Shelf 

Added 
To collect 
Eyelid 
Shake 
Washing 

Bowl 

Vine 
Cloak 

Take 

White 
Rapine 

Strip 

Clay 
Beat out 
Set free 
Wash 



lOG 



THE ENGLISH LANOUAOE 



OMISSION OF THE MEDIAL RADICAL. 



Marry 

Smash 

Moan 

Eve . 

Pit . 

Sham 

Frog 

Kill. 

Sky. 

Tomb 

Tumulus 

Arouch 

Batch . 

Boil 

Broom . 

Chip 

Chop 

Cut . 

Curt 

Joke 

Jocus 

Sow. 

But . 

Nag. 

Warm 

Peel 

Coal 

Glow 

Shake 

Fetch 

Lion 

Leo 

Hap , 

Half 



-ino 



I 



' • 1 



nna 
hap 



ainn 

n'7D 
\oTjr\2 





3vn 




ma 




pnv 








jna 


• 


7VQ 



pnc' 



MVBS OF BBBBBW. 

jDu^ a wife 
To hruiae 
To groan 
Evening 
PU 

Shadow 
Frog 
To kill 
Shy 

Abyss 

Confide 

To boil 
Broom 
To cut 

Cut 

To joke 

Seed 
Except 
Drive 
Warm, 
To peel 

Burning coals 

Pownd 
Bring forth 

A fierce she-lion 

Change 
Cut off 



DERIVED FROM THE HEBREW. 



107 



Spoil 


• 


f "^ni 


Pale. 


\ or ]37 


Fane 




\n2 


To Peak 




^n2 


Deer 




ini 


To Lap . 




3.-6 


Scan 




ior 


Jet . 




riDT 


Jig . 




P3T 



SENSE OF HEBREW. 

To ruin 

Fear 

Cover 

Leprosy 

Leap 

Lick 

Think 

Pitch 

Leap forth 



108 



THE ENGLISH LANGUAGE 



OMISSION OF THE FINAL RADICAL. 



Oak . . . 



Hock or 

Hough 

Fat . 

Pick 

Pack 

Flea 

Gash 



;) 



::1 



Bage 

Sheaf . 

Son . . 

Stab . 
Dive 

Aery . 

Wake . 
Bar 

Beg . 

Bit . . 
Bode 

Fast . 

Fir . . 

Hurry . 
Goat 

Gotten . 

XtTWV 

Govey . 
Buff 

Tuck . 

Tack . 

Token . 

Tank . 

(Tr.) Think . 



or typj/ 
IPP 

niDivp p 

( or ui 

n-i3 

u;p2 
jriD 
nriQ 

tl/12 

-an 



8KV8IC OF HEBBIW. 

Crooked 

Ha/metring 

Fat 

Visit 

Flea 
Money 

Bage 

Ear of corn 

Sim 

Slay 

Plunge 

Bed 

To awake 

Reach acro8$ 

Bequest 

Bit 

Open 

Stubborn 

Fir 

Hurry 

Coat 

Associate 
Collar 



pr\ 



Make even 



To ponder 



DEBIVBD FROM THE HEBREW. 



109 



:) 



No . 

Nay 

Lamp 

Lid 

Curse 

Snail 

Neigh 

Pat 
To Hie 

Stab 

Ooze 

Chime 
To Tack 
(as a carpenter) 

Sear . . 





SKHSK OF HBBREW. 


Ki: 


Deny 


ipi 


Lamp 


rY?! 


Door 


waty 


Cutoff 
Snail 


pn: 


Bray 


tt'coa 


Hammer 


vn 


Go 


nar 


Slaughter 


31T 


Flow 


10? 


Repetition 


iptr 


Bind on 



3-ir 



Burn 



110 



THE ENGLISH LANGUAGE 



CHAPTER XX. 



TRANSPOSITIONS. 

In this series will be found cases in which the three 
letters of the Hebrew root are, when introduced into English, 
more or less changed from their order in Hebrew. These I 
call Transpositions. Some of them have been already given ; 
but I have not noted down all I have come upon. 







SBVSB or HIBBKW 


Cramp . 


-IDD 


Excite 


Cower . 


1^-)D 


Bow down 


Soorpion 
ScarabsBUB 


mpi; 


Scorpion 


Whistle 


wrh 


Whisper 


Morrow 


-ino 


Morrow 


To-morroi 


^ ^lonx 


Yesterday 


Market . 
Merces . 


1 -IDD 


Barter 


Mix . . 
Misceo . . 


1 IDD 


Mix 


Moan 


ana 


To groan 


Snake . 


jynj 


Serpent 


Sign . 


1 D3 

(orpV 


Banner 


Bond 


coqy 


Bond 


Snipe . 


p^iB^r 


Ibis 


Herd . 


-nv 


Herd 


Avast . 


3rj; 


Leave 



DEBITBD FBOH THE HEBBBW. 



Ill 







SKN8S OF HKBREW 


Faint . 


^m 


Exhausted 


Tiara . 


-loj; 


Crown 


Mate 


noj; 


Cofnrade 


Pile . 1 
Fell . . 


i^if 


Hill 


Adze 


ivj; 


Axe 


Stone . ^ 






Same . 




Selfsame 


Strong . 




Strength 


Iste . . 


CDVl^ 




-urfjMs 






Oiorra . 






OcrreoK . 




Bone 


Bad . . ^ 






Bid . . 


1D3; 


Slave 


Obedient . 






Slow . 


• 


Sluggish 


Lazy . . 


Slothful 


Knuckle 


^Pif 


Crooked 


Roke . 


"ip;' 


Boot up 


Eager . 
Opeyot . , 


ryj; 


Desire 


Right . ^ 






Bank 


llSf 


Arra/nge 


Rectify . > 




Set in order 


Anguish ' 
Anxious . 


\ ptw/ 


Oppress 


Corpse . 


-IJQ 


Corpse 


Topaz . 


mcoD 


Topaz 


Part . 


•na 


Separate 


Split . 


"1CDD 


Opening 


Skip . 


■ I or yap 

IpD 


Leap 


Picket . 


Visit 


Finger 


jfyrn 


Finger 


Asp 


i/ay 


Basilisk 


Purge . 


^ny 


Purify 


Squeeze 


piv 


Topres" 



112 



TRR ENaUSH LANaUAOE 







BKirSI OF HBBBEW 


Dream 


CDTT 


Sleep 


Hover . 


^m 


To hover 


Shudder 


■nn 


Tremble 


Trump 


paity 


Trumpet 


Cluster 


• m7DtyK 


Cluster 


Brittle . 


-i3n 


Break 


Barrow 


pi3 


Pit 


Vulture 


V^i! 


Bat 


Spittle . 


h^n 


Spit out 


Drift . 
Drive . , 






nai 


Things driven 


Arise . . 


mr 


Rising 


Back . . 


2: 


Back 


Bitter . . 


miDn 


Bitter 


Blanch . 
Bleach . . 


3^n 


Milk 


Boa . . . 


l^BK 


Adder 


Bog . . . 


K3J 


Marsh 


Brave . . 


221 


Orea^ 


Bring . . 


73;; 


To transfer 


Bugle . . 


i2V 


Trumpet 


Burgh . ) 
Tlvpyos , ) 






122 


Strong 


Butcher • . 


( 3-in 

tor ^tt/2 


Sword 




Flesh 


Buzz . . 


3r 


Buzz 


Chattel 


^i^n 


Transient 


Crawl . . 


h:i 


Foot 


Crib . . 


-132 


Net work 


Curd . \ 






Curdle . [ 




Contract 


Clot . . 3 






Quail . . 


t or ^p 


Partridge 


Kiss . . 


pm 


Kiss 


Stink . . 


inv 


Stench 


Stench . . 


mf 


To stink 



k 



DERIVED FBOM THE HEBREW. 



118 



:1 



8BNSB OF HBBBEW. 



.! 



Sore 
Sorry 
Kindle . 
Candle . 
Diligo . 
Candeo . 
eanse 
Binse 
Hurl . 
Meadow 
Door . 
Through . 
Sprawl 
Then . 
Aunt . 
Call . 
Bavage 
Bavish 
Noise . 
Lid . . 
Fawn 
Paddle . 
Beetle . 
Sabre . 
Asp 

Nut . 
Means . 
Plait . 
Plat . 
Else . 
Still . 
Flesh . 
Gnash . 
Stave in 
Take . 

Tool . 






or 



nip 
yni 

nnitif 

Dai 
r\2i! 
]nn 

pa 
pi 

lai? 
ain 

'7n2 

1tf3 

orli/n 



To burn 



Bum 

To wath 

To throw 
Field 

Oate 

Prostrate one's self 

Time 

Melative 

To call 

Break down 

Lie with 

Noise 

Door 

Beddish 

Flat 

Sword 

Basilisk 

Nut 
Find out 

To twist 

Except 

Flesh 

Cause to approach 

Penetrate 

Collect 



Razor 



Q 



114 



THE ENGLISH LANGUAOE 



A. 



Wit. 

Wot 

Last 



:1 



Drive . . 



Glee 
Bear 
«cpw Fero 
Lame . 
Fist 
Sleep . 
Them . 
Moil . 
Irk . . 
Cleave . 
Donee . 
Ghamiel 
Guard . 
Herd . 
Why . 

Man 

Gird . 
Scald . 
Great 
Long 
Coulter 
Time , 



,1 



;1 



Grass . 

Bound . 
Haste . 

Hammer 

Harness 

Buzz 

Ooze 



an« 
-)?•» 

P31 

or Bn3«P 

p'7l4S 

n-i3 
an 

lornj 

"in 
Din 



3T 
TIT 



■urss or hkbbsw. 

Know 

To eharpen 

To jpwrsue 

Rejoice 

Propagate 

Besiram 

Hammer 

Lie low 

Them 

To labour 

Heavy 

Fasten to 

Fat 

Valley 

Wall 

Herd 



To hind 
Burn 

Great 

Out 
Finish 

Oraes 

Circle 
Haete 
Beating 
Hammer 
Folds of dress 

Flow 



% 



DBBIVED FBOH THE HEBBEW. 



116 



Less 
Lest 




"V 
n"?! 


suras or hxbbbw 
Except 


Kettle . 




nv2 


Veeeel 


Cream . 




son 


Butter 


Filth . 




epjo 


To soil 


Stnpid . 




{^fc^EO 


Btupid 


Slop . 




DDT 


Dieturh water 


Tannt . 




pt2r 


Accuse 


Strum . 
Strain . 


} 


nDT 


Sing 


Sickle . 




:hi 


Fish-hook 


Pitch . 




nar 


Pitch 


Swarm 




{^IDI 


Creep 


Yearn . 




am 


Pity 


Willow 




3-tf? 


Willow 


Garden 




nj 


Ouard 


Purge . 




nnv 


Purg4 


Gnash . 




mi 


Bring near 


®opvfios 
Turba . 


* 


man 


Multitude 


Shame . 




OU'K 


Quilt 


Dream . 








Dormio 


an 


Sleep 


Kiss 


• 


pm 


Kiss 


Sniff . 


i 






Snnff . 


2tff2 


Breathe 


Shear . 


• 


Bnn 


Plough 


Scoop . 


• 


^ivn 


Scoop up 



116 



THE ENGLISH LANGUAGE 



CHAPTER XXL 



N. INTERNAL. 

The following list gives examples of N added internally, by- 
way of strengthening the root, as Max Muller supposes. 



Banter . . 
Bonnce 
Branch 
Bangle 
Crunch 
Quandary * 
Quench 
Jaunt . I 
Stride . ) 
Kidney 
Cleanse ^ 
Binse . ) 
Frank . \ 
Freak . I 
Sprig . [ 
A spring I 
Gondola . 
Paint . I 
Pigmentum j 
Faint . | 
Pant . J 
Condor 





8BNSB OF HSBBBW 


lip 
YP ■ 


Out up 

Leap 

A shoot 

Confuse 

Destruction 

Dark 

End 


lira 


Move 


rvi^ 


Reins 


yni 


To wash 


p13 


Violence 
Fragment 


nhM: 


Great 


T2 


Eye paint 


ma 


To hloto 


•np 


Dark 



DERIVED FROM THE HEBREW. 



117 



Hound . 
Loins . 
Means . 
Scoundrel 

Sling . 

Abandon 

France 

Window 

Bandom 

Cancer 

Went . 

Wanton 

Single . 

Hinder 

Dance . 

Hunt . 

Springe 

Link 

Drink . 

Ayyapos . 

Sprinkle 

Bint, {daughter) ) 

(Modern Arabic) ) 

Sunt .. I 

(Modern Arabic) ) 

Census . -i 

Cess . ) 

Wrangle . 

Shank . . 



in 
yhn 

DID 
VT 



133 

nn 

pi 
npty 

pit 
n3 

'73-1 
piti' 



SKNBE OF HEBREW. 

Sharp 
Loins 
Find 
Dark 

Throw away 

Perish 

Eoof 

See 

Dream 

Circle 

Oo 

Pleasure 

Peculiar 

Besiege 

Leap 

Attach 

Fetter 

Thin cahe 

Drinh 

Letter 

Sprinkle 

Daughter 
Acacia 

Tribute 

Traffic 
Leg 



118 



THE ENOUSH LANGUAGE 



CHAPTER XXII. 



R. INTERNAL. 

The following list produces instances of R added in the 
interior, by the Chaldee. 







8BHSS or HBBBEW 


Dry 


■•X 


Drought 


Mirth . 


noBT 


Joy 


Stride . 


UJii 


Step 


Drum . 


TTI 


TambotMrine 


Thresh 


trr 


Threah 


Niggard , 


232 


Dry 


Stress . . 


ttfO 


Pownce on 


Strninpet 


eptO 


Polluted 


Mortal . 
Bporos . ) 


mo 


Death 


Thorpe 
Dorff . 


B)1I0 


Surround 


Trip . \ 






Tip . . . 


vp 


Trip 


Step . 






Warm . 


an^ 


Warm 


World . 


ihn 


Pass 


Durbar ) 
(Indian) ) 






■I3T 


Speak 


Curve . 


naa 


Bend ' 


Order . 


ITl' 


Set in order 



I 



DEBITED FBOH THE HEBBEW. 



119 







8KHBB OF HSBBEW 


Stray . . 


oi/n 


Stray 


Bam . . 


nD2 


Fori 


Hark . . 


njn 


Meditate 


Harness 


])iD 


Weapon 


Spark . . 


pr 


Bfo/rh 


Drag . 1 
Sledge . 3 


:^T 


Draw out 


Cream . . 


«iQn 


Butter 


Drought 


nnv 


Patched 


Thorn . . 


; 1^ 


Bha/tp 


Travel 


^3B^ 


Go 


Trail . . 


^W 


Train 


Trot . 
Shot . 


COV^ 


Bun 


Throne . 


\if^ 


Rest on 


Dirt . . 


CO^IO 


Mud 


Bark . . 


n33 


To harh 


Wreath . 


iMj; 


A rope 


Order . . 


iijj 


Arrange 


Fright 


ina 


Fear 


Frisk . . 


noQ 


To leap 


Cramp 


nap 


Ooniract 


Sceptre 


^2ii; 


A staff 


Thrill . . 


hn 


Vibrate 


Trifle . . 


h^n 


Befuae 


Throb . . 


nn 


Strike 


Brook . 
Beck . 


• 




133 


Guah forth 


Berth . . 


rca 


House 


Chirp . . 


3^ 


Chirp 


Curdle . 


£0?p 


Clot 


Zebra . . 


■•av 


Antelope 


Straight . 


piv 


Just 




120 



THE ENGLISH LANGUAGE 



CHAPTEE XXIII. 



S. INITIAL. 



In this table the reader will find instances in which an S 
makes its appearance at the commencement of the English 
word, where it has no prototype in the Hebrew. This also is 
a feature of the Chaldee. 



Spume . 

Foam 

Scoundrel 



;l 



Steer . • 

Stave (in) 
Sulphur 
Scorch 
Spathe 
Schola . ] 
School . ' 
Scam . 
Scarf . 
Sharp . 
Scald . 
Stray . 
Stop 
Squall . 
Swallow 
Spirt . 
Sbrug . 



lap 
nip 



I' 

3-in 
pii 

in2 

1-13 



8EKBE OF HBBEKW. 

Fat 

Dark 

Ox 

Penetrate 
Lead 
Scorch 
Opening 

Assembly 

Rise 

Scurvy 

Sword 

Burn 

To wander 

Turn 

Tremble 

Swalloio 

Spf inkle 

Shake 



DERIVED FBOM THE HEBBEW. 



121 



Swaddle . 


*7nn 


8SH8S or HEBBEW. 

Wrap up 


Sneeze 


D1J 


Agitated 


Scurf . . 


3-1J 


Scratch 


Sabre . . 


3in (Tr.) 


Sword 


Scab . . 


3«3 


Wound 


Smash . . 


rno 


Smite 


Snort . *) 
Sneer . i 


r 


Snort 


Sheath . . 


ap 


Cover 


Swan . . 


]i^ 


Ostrich 


Split . . 


-)D3 (Tr.) 


Split 


Sparse . . 


PD 


Scatter 


Spread 


TIQ 


Spread 


Scaffold 
Scuffle . 


i2p 


( Receive 
\ Opposed 


Squeeze . 


Pllf (Tr.) 


Squeeze 


Scuttle . . 


hm> 


Sla/y 


Sling . . 


jhp 


Sling 


Squash 


XB'P 


Squash 


Shudder . 


Tin 


Shudder 


Stifle . . 


i^n 


Glue 


Sputter -) 
Splutter . 


"ICDD 


Set free 


Stickle . , 


IDn 


Holdfast 


Sting . . 


i^pn 


Strike 



R 



I 



122 



THE ENGLISH LANGUAGE 



CHAFER XXIV. 



INTERCHANGE OF L AND R 



In the following table, the reader will find proofs of the 
constant interchange of the letters L and R Philologists in 
general believe, that it was late ere a distinction was made 
between them. 



•1 



List 
Lust 
Scorch 
Flee . 
Marsh . 
Well . 
Wear . 
Hammer 
Hill . 
Slop . 
Jewel . 

Bull . 

Cool . 

Yolk . I 

Yellow 1 
Tamper 

Call . . 

Corve . . 



( 



or 



hn 
in 

DDT 

■inr 

nip 
pT 

«?P 

3'7p 



8BH8E or HEBBSW. 

Delight 

Scorch 

Run 

Marsh 

Well 

Wear out 

Hammer 

Mountain 

Distu/rb water 

Shine 

Bull 

Cool 

Yellow 

Mortar 
To call 
Basket 



i 



DERIVED FROM THE HEBBIjiW. 



;L28 



Pluck 

Malt 

Amulet 

Drip 

Sleek 

Gargle 

Surf 

Burst 

Blast 

Filch 

Tumble 

Frame 

Firm 

Brim 

Brace 

Brag 

Linnet . 

Wren 

Shrike . 

Falcon 



•j 



;i 



mr 
nan 






SEVSE or HEBREW. 

Break 

Bring forth 

Preserve 

Drojp 

Scatter rays 

Neck 

Send headlong 

Burst 

Break 

Bind together 

Adjust 
Rejoice 

Sing 

Gannet 
Blunder 



i 



124 



THE ENGLISH LANGUAGE 



CHAPTER XXV. 



N. INITIAL. 

I NOW give «ome of the derivations from Hebrew words 
beginniDg with that deciduous letter N. It is to this point 
I should first look, if seeking the origin of English words 
composed of but one or two consonants, as 'go I ^do! In some 
few cases the N remains, but its place is altered; thus 
NeGeSH becomes Onask ; and NeSHeB, ' to llcm^ becomes 
^mifft whilst dropping the N, we probably have our word, 
Shvp, the vessel moved by the wind's breath. 



Nasty 
Nausea 
Onst 
Fool 



• / 



Wile . I 
Gap, G«pe 
Game . . 
Notch . . 
Don, Tan . 
ToBS, Dono . 
Tear . \ 
Dire . | 
Dash . , 
Bark . . 



3J3. 

nru 

■in: 
naj' 



snrsB or bibbkw. 
To cast off, detest 

Fool 

To he dry 

Play on i/nstrwrnent 

To cut 

Give 

Tea/r up 

Loose 
Bark 



* The ca/ret ^ immediately after the Hebrew root, signifieB that the first 
radical (N in this case) is decidnons. If a 2 or 8 be added, it means that the 
second or third radical is lost in the word indicated. 



i 



DEBIYED FBOM THE HEBREW. 



125 



Neath . ) 
Hit . .1 
Hiss . ) 
Snake . } 
Tow . . 
Tall, Tale ^ 
Toll, Tile 
Lade 
Knock . 
Neco • 
Niok , 
Guile . . 
Cot . . 
Snatch 
Essay . ^ 
Assay . ) 
Suck . ■) 

Kiss, Clash) 
Pick, Poke 1 
Poke J 
Stanch 
Store . \ 
Nurse . ) 
Sob, Sniff) 
Snuff . ) 

Plough-share 
Nitre . . 

Guess, Gash \ 
Qnash . ) 
Cash . . 
Nag . . 



nD3 

nD3. 

nv3 

1V3 

2S^2' 
10/2' 

"iru 

D33, 



BBV8S or HBBBBW. 

Descend 



Serpent 
Stretch out 

Elevate, weight 

Smite 

Plot 

Treasure-house 
Pluch out 

To try 

Kiss 

Draw out 
Victory, complete 
Keep 

Blow 

Tear in pieces 
Nitre 

Draw near 

Riches 
Lead, drive 



# 



126 



THE ENGLISH LANQUAOE 



CHAPTER XXVI. 



CHANGE OF S INTO T. 

On this page are collected examples to show that the Chaldaic 
change of the Hebrew S into T occurs frequently in English. 
In English the T sometimes becomes D. 







8BH8B or HBBBVW. 


Thick . 


PB' 


Coarse 


Tatter 
Toll . 




Split 
Ask 


Travel . 
Tmffle . 


'73B' 


Oo 


Tail 
Trail . 


is; 


Train 
Hem 


Talo . . ihw 

Tilt . . D'7ir 


Run 

Snow 
Throw off 


Dint 
Dent . 


DDtt' 


Strike 


Dim 


Dtt' 


Waste 


Throne 
Drink . 
Dregs . 
Trash . 




Best on 
Brink 
Loathe 
Swarms 


Trump 


Tramp 



DERIVED FROM THE HEBREW. 



Teach . ^ 



Think . 
Thought j 
Taunt . . 
Tack . I 
(as sailor) ) 
Thank . . 
Tack 



(as a carpenter) 



r)} 






8VNSR or HRBBBW. 



Meditate 



Accuse 
liiin 
Rejoice 
Fasten 



127 




128 



THE ENGLISH LANOUAOE 



CHAPTER XXVII. 



THE DIGAMMA. 

In this table are presented cases in which Digamnia occurs 
in English, or in some other tongue. 



First, here are 


instances occurring before Oin. 






SnrSK OF HBBRBW. 


Foul . . 


"m 


Evil 


Fault . . 


fff7V 


Dark 


Forum 


annjj 


Naked 


Favilla. ] 
PulviB . ) 


n-y; 


Dust 


Volvo . . 


"721; 


Wheel 


FumuB 


X^ 


Cloud 


Famulus | 
iBmuluB ) 


'7W 


Toil 


Fatigue 






Antique 


pnj; 


Old 


Antic 






TloKis Eap \ 






Villa, Urbs | 


ly 


City 


Borough ) 






Fons 






Fundo . 


Vif 


Fount 






Foster . . 


■lU/ 


Help 



DERIVED FROM THE HEBREW. 



129 



Folium 

Fiscal . 
Fiscus 



:1 






8KNSB OF HEBREW. 

Deaf 
Tax 



Here foUow some other, less frequent cases. 



:! 



Frigid . "> 
Rigid . ) 
Flame 
Fear 
Fray 
Fuse . . 
Flabby . 
Febris . \ 
Fever . j 
Viper . . 
Breath 
Broad . . 
Friend 

*av\os . ) 

Evil . 1 
Fathom 
Wend 
Brawl . . 
Broom 
Build . . 
Bray . . 



■J 



an*? 

221 

2in 

mm 
nm 
njn 



Restrain 

Flame 

Fear 

Fuse 

Heart 

Dry 

Adder 
Spirit 
Broad 
Friend 

Foolish 



]^» 


8tep 


'^n 


Beel 


am 


Broom 


•6^ 


Bring forth 


)r\ 


Shout 



180 



THB ENGLISH LANGUAGE 



CHAPTER XXV III. 



CHANGE OF ZH INTO T. 

In the following table proofs are furnished, that the change of 
ZH into T, (and its cognate D,) which takes place in Chaldee^ 
is also followed by the English. 

In the following instances it becomes T. 



Timber 
Tench . . 




Cutoff 
Smk down 


Thorn . . 
Tank . . 
Thnnder 




Sharp 
Shut up 
Roar 


Tide . 
ToeP . 




Advance 
Walk 



In those which follow, principally D. 

Tabeo . . 3V Melt 

Dye . . J731f Im/merse 



DBaiTBD FBOU THE HBBBEW. 



181 



Dyke . 
Ditch . . 




piv 


CompresB 


Dank . . 




]nv 


Foul 


Dodge . . 




pnv 


Sport 


Dawn . . 




nn2f 


Shine 


Down (prep) 




1-I7V 


Remove 


Talk . . 




pim 


Cry out 


Tuft . . 




IDV 


Stick close 


Dapper • 


01 




Quick 


Tackle 


or 




Bi/nd together 


Tar . . 




i){ 


Flow, halm 



# 



182 THE ENGLISH LANGUAGE 

CHAPTER XXIX. 
HEBREW EQUIVALENTS OF ENGLISH LETTERS. 

I now give a table of the Hebrew letters which I have 
found to answer to the English initial ones. 

A answers to i^ J/ H H 



B 


>> 


3 B a;p) 





>» 


3 P n J 


Ch 


>» 


n r n D 


D 


>» 


1 D n V r 


E 


»t 


« n;; 


F 


tt 


Q 3 ;; (np) 


G 


ft 


J D Hi? j3 


H 


>» 


n r\ V ^ 


I 


>» 


•• ^v 


J 


*> 


•• V T 3 


K 


*t 


P3 J 


L 


t» 


'71 


M 


tt 


D 3 3 


N 


tt 


3 D 





tt 


V « 


P 


tt 


Q 3 


Q 


tt 


ppn 3 


B 


tt 


T •? 


S 


tt 


tr D T V + 


St Sw &o. 


r D V 


T 


tt 


n D 1 T V 


Th 


ft 


1 r D n 


U 


- ft 


« i;; 


V 


tt 


3 3;; (HP) 


w 


tt 


3;; •• « 1 


X 


tt 


trp-tr j-i 


T 


tt 


^v 


Z 


tf 


FINALS. 


Ght 


tt 


P J 


Ough 


tt 


,; 3 n 


Ow 


»y 


« n n ;; 1 



s 



e^ 



m 3 



DEBIVED FROM THE HEBREW. 



183 



CHAPTEE XXX. 



MISCELLANEOUS OBSEEVATIONS. 



Below are given examples in proof of the frequent omission 
of the aspirated letters in Hebrew by English and other 
tongues. We have observed it in the English Hiphils. 



Arve (Elver) I 
Albus • J 

'At/ia • 

Enamel 
Arid • 
Aunt . 
Ebony . 

Itwfiai . 
Iffxvs 



i7n 

]nn 
prn 



Milh 

Life 

Hoar frost 

Dry 

Relative by marriage 

Ebony 

CHve life 

Strong 



In some cases, final Beth becomes in English D ; as in : — 

I 3-in Cut 



Shrewd 
Sword 
Broad . 
Ford . 
Arid 



3nT Broad 

imf (Tr.) Ford 
3in I^ry 



134 THE ENGLISH LANGUAGE 



In some few mstancQ3 a formative T precedes the root ; as in : — 

Tissae . . HtS^ Make 

Thistle . htt/m Tamarisk 

Trousseaa ll/^H Betrothal gifts 



In some instances an A is prefixed to the word, after the 

Chaldee fashion ; as in : — 

Azure . . HHlf ^^ clear sky 

Arson . . pp) Destruction 

Agate . . "73 Agate 

Amulet ID/D Deliver 

Africa .I « , ^ 

Apricot ) pa Srohenoff 



DERIVED FBOM THE HEBBEW. 135 

One point is continually apparent, that the tendency of 
English, in its early days, was to shorten words. That the 
same tendency exists still, is well known; as witness our 
* cab ' from * cabriolet ;' ' rail ' for ' railway;' ' bus ' for ' omni- 
bus/ Words, then, which in Hebrew were of two syllables, are 
frequently in English compressed into one. And this is the 
source of many of the transpositions which we find. Thus 
BaDaM, ' to sleep,' becomes in English Dream ; SaBaT be- 
comes Staff; ZePHEONe, ' a sharp point,* becomes Prong ; 
and DeBEONe becomes Thorn, 

Some of the transpositions are due to the fact, that a com- 
bination of sounds which seems harmonious to the ears of 
some nations, is not so to other tribes. Or again, the conso- 
nants so put together are unpronounceable by them* Hence 
we have some curious cases in which the Hebrew letters are 
taken in a reverse order in English. Thus. HeEaB, 'to dry 
up,' becomes in English Parch; ZaEaP, *to purify metal,* 
becomes in English Purge; and the Latin Sanctvs springs 
out of the Hebrew KaDeSH, * holy.' 

Thus too the Hebrew CaHaS H, * to lie, to flatter,* becomes 
in English coax. Thus NeG'O, to toiich, becomes Gnaw. 



THE END. 



FLETOHBB AND SON, PBINTEBS, NORWICH. 



/